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POL101Y1 Lecture Notes - High Culture, Industrial Society, Regional Integration

Political Science
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Jan. 17th, 2011
What is Nationalism? (Kopstein)
Seemingly obvious answer: the ideology of nations. A nation is a group that wants to
have its own state.
Thesis: Nations do not invent nationalism; nationalism invents nations.
What is a nation? A group of people who believe they share a common fate,
history, culture, & language.
Nationalism says that the state and the nation should be congruent, & nations
should have states
The leaders of states should share with the mass of people (the nation) a common
culture, language, sense of shared history, sometimes religion
Occurs only under modern conditions (last couple hundreds of years)
Never before in human history did people insist that their leaders be of the same
culture & never did leaders try to make the people share their culture
Modern phenomenon
Need for congruence needs to be explained
Nationalism & Modernization
High culture & low cultures: European monarchs & populations. (Monarchs often
did not speak the same language as the rest of the population; no need for
cultural congruence).
Industrial society & need for universalization of high culture. (Requires the
universalization of a culture for masses of people in order to coordinate with one
another. States impose this through institutions; choosing a particular language
is momentous - privileges others, while disadvantaging others).
In this way nations are constructed, they are projects of elites, sometimes
competing projects. They dont exist as things in themselves but are the products
of aggregated individual beliefs. (Identities are socially constructed).
But stakes are very high. If YOUR culture is not adopted as the high (&
universal) culture, you face a systematic disadvantage
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