Democracy, War, and Peace - Lecture 3: Marxism

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Published on 26 Sep 2011
School
UTSG
Department
Political Science
Course
POL101Y1
POL101 – Lec 3 11-09-26 7:33 PM
The Rise of the West and Marxism
Economic development first starts in Northwest Europe
Twin "Revolutions” 16-19th, Centuries, agricultural and industrial.
Agricultural Revolution: may be hyperbole to use the "word revolution"
here.
Case of Flemish and British farmers.
No surplus no wealth
Those changes in Agriculture, agricultural technologies…they move across
the continent from northwest to south east at about 3-5 miles a year.
By the time they reach Russia its 150 years later…between northwest and
the southeast
As you go from Northwest to Southeast, you see a pattern of how cities
and towns get poorer.
This pattern exists today, 150 years later. Even though everyone is
richer…but the poor pattern still stays with you in the modern day.
Originates in the late 18th century England
Agricultural revolution was not really a revolution because it was slow,
there was no rapid change, no profound change.
Industrial Revolution
originates in late 18th century England.
A ten fold increase in cotton in 15 years
Amount of Iron processed into steel in English factories increases really
fast.
A ten fold of increase in the production of iron.
Produced huge changes in domestic consumption
all peasants became workers
everybody moving into cities
Consequences
Luxuries came to be seen and mere “decencies” and decencies came be
seen as necessities.
Distribution highly uneven but now creation of middle class that had risen
from manual labor to professional or entrepreneurial status.
Social Results
1) Capacity to produce surplus.
2) increasing complexity of division of labor (society became more complex,
jobs in specializations…doctor, lawyer, farmers)
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Document Summary

Consequences: luxuries came to be seen and mere decencies and decencies came be seen as necessities, distribution highly uneven but now creation of middle class that had risen from manual labor to professional or entrepreneurial status. Law, morality, religion all determined by mode of production: superstructure : slave, feudal, capitalist, socialist/communist modes of production. How does history unfold: exploitation (the higher class exploits the class under it. No they give it to the stock holders. A mast behind which power hides capitalism: but they, too, exploit labor and eventually their power is brought into question by those who they exploit. Formal freedoms versus substantive reality (how you exercise your freedoms if you are poor?) People will realize that everyone depends on each other: capitalism, your living in the matrix. Marx is keanu reeves: capitalism produces this want for more, this greed.