Rwanda massacre: hutus and tutsis 800 000 people died. Today: semi independent state, nato intervened in 1999 without security council approval (prob, illegal) International commission on sovereignty and intervention, 2001: purpose to join legitimacy and legality together. R2p: responsibility to protect, all sovereign states have the responsibility to protect their own civilians. (2005), approved by general assembly. The responsibility to protect (states must act) versus the right to intervene (they can intervene if they choose to) Responsibility is a duty, focuses on the civilians. Right is a choice, rights held by states. States cannot intervene in the internal affairs of other states. Security council unique body in charge in deciding when that right can be infringed, can authorize the use of force to maintain or restore security. Security council doesn"t represent 2/3 of the world (us, france, uk, china, russia) Sovereignty as inviolability and control vs sovereignty as responsibility.