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POL101Y1 Lecture Notes - Travel Warning, Centrism, The Who

Political Science
Course Code
Jeffrey Kopstein

of 4
January 6- global governance - WONG
(Ie. the monk school of global affairs- institution and track of global governance)
Comparative politics (International level)
Global gov- normatively appealing, we want global peace rather than anarchy
International system- it is a form of gov’t intended to be applied to international level- managing
international system theories: ie. realism or neoliberal policies.
Realist approach: Pessimistic, anarchic and conflict is the norm (prone to conflict), relative
power imbalances
we live in an international system with no global government and we live in an anarchic system
b.c we favour national interests (personal interests). National interests = most important.
National power matters- it is about relative power (more power than your neighbour- this is what
matters- more powerful than other states- not about absolute power standing)  Zero sum – my
gain is your loss or someone’s gain is someone else’s loss- there is a finite amount of power.
Only way to balance power- hegemonic stability- an all powerful country maintaining stability
(ex. US)
-WW1- resulted due to the rise of Germany industrialising and challenging the hegemonic power
of England (which was on the decline) = conflict = structural realist approach to explaining this
Collective security- all nation states would be committed to protection of sovernty- if one state
threatened another’s sovernty, they would be punished collectively by other countries – this was
thought to deter countries from attacking or invading other countries in the first place because
they would be punished –LEAGUE OF NATIONS (founded post-ww1 to prevent this war from
happening again) –they failed
We were thinking about international system in the beginning of 20th cen.
Neoliberal- similar to realist- view world as international anarchy- no such thing as world gov’t
Sovernty- organizing system
We CAN have an interdependent system- not always national interests thst ready countries for
a state of war- but there can be complex interdependence (ex. another countries security
alliances, wealth, economy etc)
They argue rise of China no biggie because they are dependent on the US
Managing climate change, global health issues = complex interdependence  positive sum
political relationships- we can cooperate with other countries and all benefit- countries will
benefit unequally, but in the grand scheme of things, all countries benefit.
Functional specialization- we cannot cooperate about everything but in some areas we can- as
a global community we can cooperate ie. using all knowledge and experts to create win-win
sitautions. The way we can enforce this is with norms (informal rules of standards of appropriate
behaviour) and formal rules. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION -ie. world trade organization
which recognizes we live in interdependent world where everyone gains overall (and it is
functionally specific, with FREE TRADE with accompanying rules)
European Union- have interests of cooperation and have standards if a countries want to join
(look up)
UN system of states- to maintain international peace and security to take international measures
for effective collective measures for removing threats. It wants to develop relationships between
nations based on rights (all states are equal). Soverignty is the equalizer- countries are all
equally soverign.
Wants to achieve international cooperation with soc, eco etc. It draws on neoliberal policies-
positive sum.
-Harmonizing the actions of nations, to alighn the interests and actions of states to solve
international problems.
Why Global governance? we live in world of global risks. We live in Risk Society (German
theorist- Beck)
These risks are more common than ever before- because we live in a global commons.
Technology- world interconnected
Anthrax- in 2001 being mailed to senators (but all of our mail goes through a centralized
automated sorting center- all mail sorted)
SARS- global epidemic (disease knows no borders)
Uncertainty- cyber interactions compromised
New kinds of risks- individual countries: genocides, civil war, state breakdowns etc. – We cannot
meet the challenges of the 21st cen. With 20th cen. Approaches. We all have the same interests-
Obama on G20
Features of Global governance
international management in absence of globa gov’t & privilege sovereignty
collective fate, common problems need to be addressed (ex. global financial crisis hit wall street
hardest)- we need a level of coordinaton
We need functional specialization (World health organization- formed in 40’s started out small
but has grown- they now create international health regulations which all countries have to
follow- they are always changing with the gain of new knowledge)
Globally participatory- this is not hegemonic governance. Not just a deal imposed by great
power- all states are state holders- they compromise and create rules
UN general assembly- all nation states have only 1 vote regardless of the country’s
characteristics (size, population or wealth)
Inter-state Coordination between government- it is transparent – iterated (repeated- meet,
discuss and go home- it is not an ends in itself it is an ongoing process of coordination)
Global compromise- Pareto optimal – no one country disproportionally disadvantaged
RECALL: RAWLS Principle of efficiency- aka Pareto optimality. The principle holds that an
arrangement is efficient wherever possible to make one person or persons better off without
making another person or persons worse off. For example, produce more of a commodity
without producing less of another.
Harper on G20- we can’t deny we live in a realist world but we must live in an enlightened realist
world. We must have enlightened self-interests. We live in interdependence. Realists assume
that national self-interest, as reflected in national sovereignty, is the only and most paramount
(important) factor in determining how states will behave. The idea of enlightened self-interest is
(idea is more rhetorical than fact-in-practice) national self-interest can combine BOTH national
self-interest and collective interest (ex. good for Canada, national + what is best for the world,
-we’ve learned from the past- we cannot repeat the great depression- but we did in ’08…/cold
war lol- we need to live in a wold of post-nation state)
CHALLENGES to global governance 5
*test and important issues* Long term difficult problem ex. global climate change
1) Collective action problems
Hanson (NASA)- we are approaching a tipping point to a point of no return, unless we change
course we will give future generations a self-distinction vs. other opinion (Prinston): scientists
tend to overestimate their models and we don’t really know with certainty. How we understand
this data, (the same data with 2 opinions)
Global climate change- perfect candidate for global governance- has much uncertainty and
Wicked problem: poses issues for policies, multiple causes (arguably) leading to global
warming, intergenerational consequences- what we do today will not really affect our lives but in
the future, however, we need jobs today ie. factories direct contributor to collective action
problem- with intergenerational problems people tend to Free Ride/defect in global context it is
difficult to punish Free Ridders. The US not apart of Kyoto protpcal therefore it cannot punish
China = tension
CHALLENGE 2) The Weakest Link- for global governance to work (ie for health epidemic SARS
first discovered in China in Novembre 2002 but we only heard about it in 2003) it only works
when everyone complies and everyone plays by rule. One weak link can have a global effect-
global governance only as strong as weakest link
Epidemiologists (study movement of disease) – first post-Westphalia pathogen (borderless
World Health Organization- China denied SARS therefore first cases of SARS went unreported.
The WHO went to investigate but they were fed false info. Travelers spread SARS all over the
world and WHO issued a travel warning.
Definition Westphalian sovereignty = sovereignty of nation-states on their territory, with no role
for external agents in domestic structures.
Sovereignty’s double edge sword- China didn’t comply with WHO for SARS reporting therefore
the world suffered (you can’t have a weak state but because of strong sovereignty when non-
compliance occurs we cannot punish- China said the WHO cannot go into China because they
are a sovereign nation)
We must respect state sovereignty, but for global governance to work there must be mechanism
to punish non compliance
Challenge 3) Global inequality