Lecture 2: Nationalism and Conflict
x A basic definition of nationalism would be the ideology attached to a specific nation. The nation
being a group of people with a common culture, religion, ethnicity, or political allegiance.
x Traditional arguments support the idea that nationalism is the product of the nation. However,
we find that the reverse is actually true: nationalism leads to the creation of a nation.
x Nationalism manifests itself as the love of state, which in turn leads to the creation of state
embodying the spirit of the nation it represents
x States appearing under these circumstance only ever occurs in the modern context
x Historically, monarchs of European states did not necessarily share the same nationality as their
x Along with industrialization came the need to universalize culture.
x Nations created governments for themselves as a means to standardize culture and political
x Despite common belief, national identity is usually manufactured by certain similarities between
members of a community. Once a national government is formed, then we have the integration
of people into the state based on their cultural ideas and their political allegiance towards the
state[s high culture.
x Minority cultures within a superculture end up being at a systematic disadvantage due to
language barriers and other factors.
x With the nationalistic state, the government educates the population on its culture as a means
to maintain its identity and to recruit new members into its culture.
x In the examples of Ukraine, Hungary and Slovakia, we have nations that were grouped together
based on a language base that resulted into borders being formed along a ^language line._ The
result being states consisting of people with a common language base.
x Nationalism can manifest itself in different ways and in different order. In the cases of England
and France, the state came before the nation. In most other cases, the people came before the
x Ethnic nationalism is based purely on your ethnicity such as being Japanese or Italian.
x Political nationalism is based on allegiance to a state.
x In the case of Canada we have both of these forms of nationalism. Our liberal politics allow
people to express their culture individually. Communitarianism is the result of multiple
individuals banding together to form a cultural group inside the Canadian culture.
x Key point: nationalism is key for a state to ensure the support of its people. If people }v[ feel
like they belong to a nation, then they will not feel obligated to support the government that