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Lecture 1

POL101Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Global Governance, Global Health, Neoliberalism

Political Science
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Promise & Challenges
Lecture 20
On the 28th, Dave Naylor will be giving a guest lecture about health emergencies &
the politics surrounding that
Re: Final Exam - will cover material from entire course but with a greater emphasis on
the second half
1.A fairly new concept [Global Governance]; back in the day, tended to focus on
government; with IR - tended to focus on governments, etc. however, over last decade,
terrain has shifted somewhat, now focus more on governance
` a process of governing
Audio recording started: 12:27 PM March-14-11
2.Global Governance.wma
3.Brief overview of what global governance entails, some of its challenges, with a more
critical eye, etc.
Global governance & the international system
4.Anarchic international system - realism
5.League of Nations & collective security
6.Neoliberal institutionalism
Positive sum
Rules & norms
7. International organizations & regimes
8.By & large, in realist conceptions of IR, states behave according to their national
9.States are primarily concerned with relative power (which countries have more,
which have less, etc. if we're a country of less power, how do we ensure that more
powerful countries don't destroy us? If we're powerful, how do we best flex that power
to gain what's best for our self-interest?)
10.Zero-sum: hyper competitive; one country's gain is another's loss
` prone to conflict [realist pov]
11.Realists presume the international system to be anarchic & prone to conflict
12.Response (in modern era): the League of Nations [Woodrow Wilson], emerges
in interwar period; the idea of security doctrine (@ core of League of Nations is concept
of collective security)
13.All states agree that aggressive action by other states = illegal; if one state
behaves aggressively, then all non-aggressor states will band together & punish them
` a system based on punishment, supposed to work on deterrence
- fantastic idea, but it didn't work
14.Out of WWII emerges neoliberal institutionalism (another system of
international relations) - accepts notion that there is no world gov't - presume that the

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international system is anarchic (just like realists) but unlike realists, neoliberals have
more positive view than realists
` the realities of complex interdependence
` in this globalized world, states are interdependent on each other
- argue that there're other forms of interdependence in terms of security, climate
change, health, etc.
15.Assumption that despite anarchic international system, we live in one with
complex interdependence
16.Because of this complex interdependence that we co-operate (in ways in which
all states benefit)
` all states, through cooperation, should benefit; this isn't world gov't, but rather some
functional areas in which we can cooperate
17.Way for states to figure out rules & norms (by cooperating with one another)
` if not explicit rules, then at least implied norms (by norms we mean "standards of
appropriate behaviour")
- a norm of expectation, considered appropriate
18.A way out of realist./pessimist perspective
` e.g. Bretton Woods - perfect e.g. Of international regime to "fix exchange rates" -
` e.g. The European Union, the EMU (European Monetary Union), etc. all cooperate to
figure out debt levels, economics, etc.
` e.g. The common agriculture -> agree to harmonize "price floors", while imposing
tariffs on non-EU goods
19.An optimistic way of understanding international systems
UN System of States
20.To maintain international peace & security, & to that end; to take effective
collective measures for the prevention & removal of threats to the peace...;
21.To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle
of equal rights & self-determination of peoples...;
22.To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an
economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character...; and
23.To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of
these common ends
(UN Charter, Chapter 1, Article 1)
24.Mitigate the vagueries of international states
Global Risks
25.Collective / commons (climate change)
26.Borderless world (global health)
27.Uncertainty (technology)
28.Human security (genocide)
29.New global risks & global governance

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"We recognize that we can no longer meet the challenges of the 21st century economy
with 20th century approaches. We have learned, time & again, that in the 21st
century, the nations of the world share the same interests." US President Barack
Obama, on the G20
30.These risks are ones that are effectively borderless; borders don't matter
` e.g. Acid rain from the states falling on Canada, SARS epidemic (from Hong Kong to
Toronto), etc.
` not all that new - the Bubonic plague in the 14th century affected all of Europe &
most of Asia
- a borderless pathogen
` that was the 14th century; this isn't new; yet we're experiencing this as if it is new
31.Because of uncertainty, we experience it as "new"
` technology has been one of the sources of uncertainty
` e.g. Ethics in biotech
- human security - realists; we haven't experience a world war in decades
- yet we see genocide, experience civil wars, all the time, more than we ever have before
33.Also poses a global risk in terms of spill-over effects
34.Share a informative concern when we see other humans being slaughtered
35.Not just a theoretical response to realism, but rather a very real response to
real global risks
` mitigating these risks [effectively]
Transnational governance
37.Rules of the game - WTO
38.Goals & targets (Kyoto Accord)
39.Deliberative forums - G8 & G20
40.States agreed to lower their GHG emissions
Features of global governance
41.Absence of global GOVERNMENT
42.Collective fate & commons (financial crisis)
43.Functional specialization (WHO)
44.Participatory (UN General Assembly)
Because these affect the entire world collectively, world governance is required
The UN cannot do everything -> requires functional specialization
` e.g. The WHO
Results in IHRs (international health regulations) - protocols - what do states do
when new pathogens or new epidemics are discovered?
` a set of rules created by experts in a particular field
Supposed to be participatory
` hardnose realism
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