End of the qing dynasty: qing dynasty essentially closed china from the rest of the world; economically backwards. Republican revolution: end of the qing dynasty sparked a nationalist revolution, to make matters worse, the qing dynasty was a manchurian dynasty (seen as barbarians) Not a democracy in terms of polyarchy. Not a political system where political uncertainty exists. The fact that china is not a democracy turns the theory on its head". Mao closed off foreign markets and believed that china should be self-sufficient due to bitter prior experiences. Mao believed that he could raise agricultural production by 185% in years: since people were forced into cooperatives and had to work harder, production naturally rose, mao grew confident that the people would believe in him. Mao was bombarded with criticism he did not anticipate. He believed that these criticisms were not only aimed at him but also at socialism.