POL101Y1 Lecture Notes - Order Of New Brunswick, Global Governance
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Lecture 20 – March 14th Global Governance Promise and Challenges
Global governance and the international system
- Anarchic international system – Realism
o Backdrop against realist theory.
o Anarchic international system; absence of government
o Primarily concerned with relative power of states.
o Realists understand international system as zero-sum game.
o States are prone to conflict; it’s all about national interest.
- League of Nations and collective security
o Windrow Wilson and collective security doctrine
o State interest is a priority but nonetheless we can create collective security
o Way of curbing realist prone notion.
- Neoliberal institutionalism
o Accepts realist premise and we live in a state without world government
o But believes that we can mitigate conflict of realist system
o Neoliberal institutionalism – comes after WW2 – presumes that there is no world
government and that the international system is anarchic – more of a positive
view than Realists – the realities of complex interdependence – states are
interdependence in a modern world – economic interdependence and also
security, climate change, health and human security – the assumption is that
despite the anarchic system, we live with complex interdependence and therefore
we cooperate – in all states to benefit – on balance through cooperation will
benefit – diff measures but they will all benefit and there will be a net benefit
o Positive Sum
Cooperate in functionalist areas; we can collectively solve specific
Functionalist cooperation leads to positive gain for everyone.
o Rules and norms
Norms of appropriate behavior; unwritten.
We can create positive sum world by abiding by them.
- International organizations and regimes
o Rules of the game matters.
o Rules how states can behave.
- States are concerned with power – lesser and more – how to flex power in the
international anarchic system – zero some game – one states gain is another states loss –
its competition and prone to conflict – realist = conflict
- Global governance is a reaction and a response to Realism – first response is the League
of Nations – in the interwar period – at the core = collective security doctrine – all state
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would agree that aggressive actions is illegal – direct action against one will be punished
by all – collectively - was a system based on punishment – supposed to work on
deterrence – didn’t work
- Functional areas in which we can cooperate – certain types of expertise, learning – but
over through gaining new knowledge = we can cooperate in functionally specific ways
like world trade and exchange rate development and global health = rules and norms –
the rules of the game that all states need to adhere too and if not explicit rules than
implied norms = standards of appropriate behaviour
- As a result – global governance and there is a way out from the realist pessimism – set of
rules to maintain certain debt and deficit levels – an example
UN System of States
- Neoliberal institution.
- UN Charter: to maintain international peace and security and to that end to take effective
collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace
- To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal
rights and self-determination of peoples
o Respecting state sovereignty.
o Level playing field.
- To achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic,
social, cultural or humanitarian nature
- To be the centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these
- Collective/common (climate change)
o We’re enduring more collective risk.
o Ecological factors are part of this global risk; we live in a borderless world.
- Borderless world (global health)
- Uncertainty (technology)
o Cyber warfare
- Human security (genocide)
o Threat to human security; transcends borders.
- New global risks and global governance
- We recognize that we can no longer meet the challenges of the 21st century economy with 20th
century approaches. We have learned, time and again that in the 21st century, the nations of the
world share the same interests. – USU president Barak Obama on the G20
- Transnational – includes more than one nation-state; not just about national interest
- Rules of the Game – WTO
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