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Lecture #10 nov. 13, 07
- German Case: Mixed system but highly driven by PR
- Before unification: West Germany had developed four steady parties: Christian Democrats/CSU,
Social democrats, free democrats, Greens
- Unification brought the PDS (former communists)
- Mechanisms for keeping extremist parties out (5% and Verfassungschutz)
Netherlands and Israel, takes so few votes to get into office that there are all kinds of small parties,
issue oriented parties in dutch and religious parties in Israel.
1 need minimum vote to get into PR (5%), designed to keep out Nazi and Communist
2 office of constitutional protection like FBI (Verfassungschutz)
Single member district, a large number of ppl vote for
In multicultural society, 3% concern that society is divided
ELECTORAL COMPETITION:
- In SMD system, you run to the left/right to get the nomination and then run to the centre to win the
election: capture the median voter
- In PR system it looks at bit different: German example historically
Structuring cleavages in advanced democracies and post-communist democracies
CIVIL society and the ideologies that divide us:
- Political culture: people¬s belief in politics (right or wrong)
- ppl are joiners, they like to be part of a group
- Associational Life: Variation and why it matters
- Tocqueville and the US, true genius: Americans were joiners, dependant on each other
(despotism) prevented through local and social organization. We will have our won collective will
independent of the state
- Putnam: Italy and the US, its no just civil society prevents despotism and encourage democracy
It also provide good government, (ex: government provide collective goods society needs). Italy,
rich (north) vs poor (south). Government in southern Italy did not do adequate job where as north Italy
government did. Its not that poor areas have lower levels of civic organization, it¬s the other way
around- they are poor b/c they have low levels of civic organizations
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Document Summary

German case: mixed system but highly driven by pr. Before unification: west germany had developed four steady parties: christian democrats/csu, Mechanisms for keeping extremist parties out (5% and verfassungschutz) Netherlands and israel, takes so few votes to get into office that there are all kinds of small parties, issue oriented parties in dutch and religious parties in israel. 1 need minimum vote to get into pr (5%), designed to keep out nazi and communist. 2 office of constitutional protection like fbi (verfassungschutz) Single member district, a large number of ppl vote for. In multicultural society, 3% concern that society is divided. In smd system, you run to the left/right to get the nomination and then run to the centre to win the election: capture the median voter. In pr system it looks at bit different: german example historically. Structuring cleavages in advanced democracies and post-communist democracies. Civil society and the ideologies that divide us:

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