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Lecture 21 Mar 18 Politics and Religion-From Secularism to Post-Secularism

Political Science
Course Code
Jeffrey Kopstein

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March 18th, 2008
Political Theology in Europe
๎€ public authority geared toward insuring private salvation
๎€ tension b/w political authority and catholic church (power was excommunication)
๎€ until 16th century, constant tension, was nevertheless expectation that they were on the side of God,
notion of Christendom
๎€ shattered reformation and rise of religious wars
๎€ before 16th century, the faith and politics was straight forward
๎€ secular leaders sought out the decision from religious leaders
๎€ after 1000 years, the power of church was the notion that here was Christendom
๎€ if they didn't obey the church, the church would put you outside of church, prosecution
๎€ if secular leaders no longer sought religious confirmation of their rule, then they were
๎€ protestant reformation, politically there was a great impact religious wars torn apart Europe
Argument for Toleration
1. Modus Vivendi: government should enforce true religion but everybody is winning
2. principled argument: freedom of conscience, governments have no business saving souls
3. scepticism: we don't know what the true religion was
z government should be involved in saving religious soul
z government shouldn't be involved in, give freedom
z we should tolerate each other because we don't know thus religion should be a private matter
๎€ separation of Church and State:
๎€ antidisestablishmentarianism: movement away from reserving space for church
๎€ initiated not to protect the state from the church, it was set up to protect churches from the state
๎€ Case of France and Lacite (product of political struggle)
๎€ after French revolution, catholic church sided with the monarchy, thus republic passed laws
to make sure church is separated from state
๎€ never actually complete: school and public rituals
๎€ but huge differences: separation of church and state not the same as separation of religion and
๎€ use of public time is still very much Christian: ie. Easter Sunday etc.
- most sociologist predict religion will go away: Marx and Weber
๎€ rationalization thesis: Weber
๎€ Entzauberung: Demystification
๎€ religion will first become a private matter, then will disappear form public discourse altogether as
people no longer believe it
๎€ Political thesis: religious/religion and political justification: states and power no longer need God
(Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke)
๎€ modernization and differentiation: each pursuit governed by its own knowledge
๎€ how do you measure it?
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