Lecture 22 Mar 25 Liberalism and its Challengers

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Published on 9 Aug 2010
POL103: March 25th
Liberalism and its Challengers
long cycle: royal oligarchies, fascism, and communism
all these came from different constellations of social forces but all were challengers only in the state
all based on ideology ± systematic critique derived by intellectuals
ideology: logical and scientific relationship for critique of existing order and proposal of a new
all clashes b/w liberalism and its challengers were all based on ideologies
from where: cores and peripheries
core: northwest triangle in the West
peripheries: challengers usually came from outside the core
New Challengers: Dynamics
end of history? what did that mean. role of reason, trade, law and international organization
when communism had fail, history would have been finished and big ideological challengers
are finished
ideologies are now based not on state but on international organizations
But global inequalities continue to produce and fuel counter-systemic ideologies. these new
ideologies produces conflict
same dynamics: adapt or challenge
scarcity from whatever source may produce new kinds of anti-liberal ideologies (speculations on
Huntington: organizing principles of conflict will be different. The clash of ideologies in the cold
war masked much older tensions among states
19th and 20th century conflicts are deviants in that it is based on ideologies created by
intellectuals and latched onto by the masses
for most of history conflict comes from clashes of civilization/culture
organizing principle of conflict will no longer be ideology but fundamental ways of organizing
society derived from big world religions. He's not advocating it but predicting it
dividing lines: Western Christianity vs. Eastern Christendom vs. Confucianism vs. Islam
these had vast differences in
individuals and society
roles of law and state
gender relations
money and markets
political state
Johnson and Blowback
American power produces its own anti-thesis
far flung military bases, aircraft carriers and young soldiers
cases of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Lebanon
Americans don't see that they are attempting to universalize their own particular experience. Their
universalism is perceived as a particularism
blowback: the cost of Americans to maintain this global order
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