Civilian Violence and war, POL100 december 5th.docx

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14 Apr 2012
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Civilian Violence and war: POL100 lecture December 5th 2011
Exam format:
1 essay question ( some choice) and 20 multiple choice
Lecture (From ancient Greece to the Holocaust):
Violence and War
- War is normally thought of as state on state
- Violence generally monopolized by state
- Weber-state: monopoly of legitimate use of violence within a given territory
- Civil war is something different
- Collapse of state, collapse of sovereignty
- Either no or multiple sovereignties
- What is the difference between civil war and revolution? (sequence).
- “one man’s revolution is another man’s civil war”
Ancient Greece
- Civil war is violence not between communities but between communities
- Peloponnesian war
- Civil war takes place from 431 to 433 BCE
- Backstory: 480 BCE: beating back Persians, Athenians lead the way (almost single handed-Delian
league).
- 479 to 432BCE rise of Athens versus Sparta.
- Contrasts: land versus maritime, oligarchy versus democracy, military versus commercial
orientation
- All citizens in Athens had the right to discuss foreign policy, on any given day 6000 Athenians
would show up to provide their own input.
- General’s were elected, most famous general, Pericles
- Greece had a much larger base of social power
- Reason for war: rise in power of Athens and alarm it caused in Sparta and its allies.
- Thus: Spartans afraid: “the Athenians might become too powerful, seeing the greater part of
Greece was already in their hands..”
- “the power of the Athenians began to manifest itself and to lay hold on their the spatans allies.
Then the situation became unendurable and the Spartans decided they must tyr with all their
resolution to destroy that power if they could and launch this war.
- Fear,Honour, interest motives for the war. Sparta in effect led by lesser allies to choose a policy
it would not have chosen on its own.
- Much like the cold war regarding the U.S versus the communists who attempt to take Vietnam
- “Oligarchs” versus “democrats” each with external backers. Oligarchs backed by Sparta,
Democrats backed by Greece.
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