POL101Y1 Lecture Notes - International Financial Institutions, Mass Politics

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15 Apr 2012
Failed Sates
- Modernization sequences
o The west: state first, nation second, followed by mass politics
o The rest, this sequence not always followed
o Mass politics before institutional development
o In many countries that were colonies of the west (Africa, Asia)
received their independence after the era of mass politics and
o Before either state power was consolidated in the capitalist city
- Praetorian polities
o Modicum of modernization (education, urbanization,
o Weak industrialization- parties, bureaucracies, regulation
o Weak civil societies
o Democratic politics: programmatic versus clientelistic/ charismatic
o Institutional overload: raw social power confronting states
unmediated by institutions of civil societies and political parties
o International financial institutions apply pressures of their own
- Praetorian polities: nationalism and political integration
o Post colonial state precedes “nation” problem of “tribalism”
- The coup
o Mass politics, weak loyalties to the center, weak institutions create
unrest and sometimes civil war over distributional struggles
o Military as institution of upward mobility
o Socio econ institution
o Military steps in to restore order “temporarily”
o Problem: no ideology, so ultimately step aside
o But problems that brought military to power remains, bring them to
power again…. a cycle
- Pakistan
o Weak institutionalization
o Army is one institution and ISI is another
o The parties are individual politics- based on people
o Military provides protection for military- cares about themselves
- Neo con approach
o Modernization- the dangerous portal
o Terrorism
o Democracy as a solution
o Problem: weak state, think of Iraq
- Back to realism
o Obama and bush wars
o Containment and cost restriction: a problem to lived with but not
o Krasner’s article back to carrots and sticks for Pakistan but not clear
that this really gets at the issue
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