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Lecture

Failed States


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL101Y1
Professor
Jeffrey Kopstein

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FAILED STATES: March 7th
- the state does not provide the most important good we expect it to privde
- the origins and functions of the modern state"
- modern state is something between an empire and a city
- states in the current order are geographically large
- the current system we have today of a world chopped into states, has not been around since
1648
- at the end of the 30 years war
- it is a gradual process that took some time to take shape
- rulers expropriate the means of violence controlled by local rulers
- states did not exist as we normally think of them
- states as we think pof them inbroad terms have onyl existed for the last 300 years
- before that time, there were competing centers fo violence on the same territory
- Marxist ideology- the means of violence
- historically it took a long time for urlers to expropriate, own, and take away tje violence
controlled by rulers
- in present day Canada; employees of the federal ministry, they are working/obeying the orders
of people they'll never see in ottawa
- the mounty analgoy; subordinates himself to the centre, how does that come about?
- - process of soveriegnty building in Europe
- statebuilding as a protection racket: "organized crime" vs "organized crime"
-state bulding projects; essentially protection rackets, getting support from the outside-ish
citizens, those not involved directly in the main city
- the isniders ensure their own protections
- state projects are competing projects of organized crimes
www.notesolution.com

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- for the state to be a complete one, the federal gov't/authority at the greatest level has to have
control of all minor levels of authority
- the statebuilding projects depend on control of violence
- the modern state as we know it is a centralized organization that controls the means of violence
- it came about during the 17th century; Hobbes was the greatets theorist of statebulding with
violence
- hobbes: from security dilemma of "war of all against all" to modern "leviathan"
- hobbes said how can we avoid this constatnt fear? the state of nature is a war of all against all
- in such a condition life is nasty brutish and short
- given that knowledge that the state of nature is awful, the only thiong we can do to protect
ourselves is to take our own individual and hand it over to a soveriegn above us all
- a "leviathan" is the greater power above us all, a scary big creature agianst who will will not act
against
- Hobbes argued this was the onyl way to escape from the state of nature
- subsequent political theorists; Lock, the state needs to be a soveriegn above us in order to have
private property liberty and happiness
- given human psychology; this raised the interesting quiestioned of: we handed over our
sovereignty the state has to fulfill their side of the bargain; you can never withdraw your support
as long as the state does its job
- the msot important thing it does it provides us with physical security
- weber: "monopoly of legitimate use of violence within a given territory"
- what is the definition of the state?
- state controls the legitimate sue of violence wihtin a given terrotiry- it therefore ahs amonopoly
over that use
- canada has a state; if individuals use violence, but it is illegitimate
- Afhganistan; is there a monopoly over the legitimate use of violence in the terriotry
- there is not even a legitimate monopoly
www.notesolution.com
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