Postwar Reconstruction

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8 Mar 2011
Political Science February 14th, 2011
Postwar Reconstruction
Reading: Ikenberry, Creating Yesterday’s New World Order - Keynesian New Thinking,
Paper #2
This paper not argumentative, picking values vs. policy
Simply to compare them
Need to describe these contending/complementary perspectives
How to compare? Similarities and dissimilarities, contradictions and
complementariness, units of analysis, individual vs. systems, contingencies vs.
Asias Rise
Government intervention – created strategic polices to create comparative
Infant industry protection – Alexander Hamilton wrote about this. How
America in late 18th century going to grow? He gave answer you have to protect
infant industries by making foreign competition more expensive by increasing
tariff barriers, by putting a tax on foreign goods
Picking and making market winners
American patronage – Americans provided military support, Americans bought
Asian goods, e.g. America provided largest navel fleet in Japan
Developmental state – something unique/extraordinary about how govts worked,
how institutions of govt was hierarchical allowing coordination, only best and
brightest were invited into bureaucracy, states had extraordinary power
Export oriented growth – economies plugged into global economy, enjoyed
positive terms of trade (sold more than purchased) and essentially benefitted from
global economy
Outliner or Model?
Market regarding – Smith Market regarding economic that took very
seriously supply and demand, and foreign trade
Mercantilist – List and Hamilton Predicated on gov’t intervention, predicated
economic nationalism, and used policies to create comparative advantages
Dependent development – Lenin and Wallerstein Peripheral countries and
dependent on foreign countries, foreign aid, foreign markets
Global Economic Growth
End of 19th century, world GDP WAS 2.5 % per year
During interwar period, grew about 1%
In immediate post war period, 4.2% growth
1960-1970 GDP growing at 5.3% per year
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Political Science February 14th, 2011
Key point: seems World Wars were major turning period (during and after WWII)
allowing for economic growth
The Word Wars: a devastating turning point
65 million deaths total (military & civilians in WWI and WWII)
# of American deaths totaled 110 soldiers in Vietnam and Korean wars
Economic infrastructure developed in 19th century had been destroyed
How did WWI and WWII that resulted in global growth in 4-5% per year? How
did these two wars shape post war reconstruction? What lessons did we learn from
these wars and how did these lessons shape global and economic order in post
World War I (1914-1918)
Rise of Germany – end of 19th century, Germany was leading country in heavy
industrial production (steel), to produce ships, put weapons on them; was engaged
in naval armed race with England. Germany’s economic growth rates were
double of Englands.
Alliance formation – England forms alliance with France and Russia, and
together 3 of them could balance rising power of Germany. Germany begins to
bee isolated, nervous and resentful, so forms alliance with Austro-Hungarian
Empire and declares war on Serbia, and Germany on Belgium
Power transition moment
1919 Treaty of Versailles (peace treaty) and Germany’s defeat – treaty
pronounces Germanys defeat and includes the war guilt clause which officially
stated that the war was Germanys fault
Collective Security
Woodrow Wilson president of U.S. during WWI was a political theorist, someone
who was adverse to war, under his presidency America did not intervene in wars;
its the system thats broken, its the system that lead to WWI, its this system of
balance of power which lead to WWI, balance of power which should be stabled
was unstable.
He created Collective security doctrine
-Preservation of state sovereignty
-Aggression illegal; outlaw offensive war
-Deter aggression through coalition
-Failed deterrence lead to collective punishment
League of Nations – Paris Peace Conference 1919
-Key point in terms of security was it was collective security
-Moral imperative but military might for those who go against
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