Communism and Fascism
•Both use to represent an alternative to democracy
Liberalism and Its Crisis
•Long 19th century –peak of liberalism’s appeal.
•Liberal institutions develop even when social basics is not obviously present
•Ex. Hungary copies British parliament building and its free fair election in 1990
Liberalism and the Working Class
•Working class –those who do not earn property
•Wanted extension of franchise (vote)
•Rise of social democracy in western Europe
•Evolutionary socialism and reconciliation with liberal democracy electoral socialism
•Revision of Marxism –you can have an evolution without revolutionism
•Why give up election, parliament?
•Benstein –you can cure capitalism! –socialism.
•Will –manhood –suffrage
What about the Revolution?
•Revolution hardly discussed in western Europe
•Russia –no constitution for 300 years –no working class –eventually thought
socialism would have to be different!
•Lenin –revolutionary movement under conditions of authoritarianism –Russia
•Workers only capable of “trade union conscienseness”