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Lecture

October 3rd 2011polisci.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL101Y1
Professor
Jeffrey Kopstein

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October 3rd 2011
POL101-Lecture
Modern Democracy
- we take democracy for granted
- the apartheid in South Africa
o political, economic and social system
o example of racial segregation
o south African blacks were discriminated against, 80% of the
population (blacks) weren’t allowed to vote.
o Continued until 1994
- Would you go to prison to fight for or defend democracy?
o In 1975 only 29% of countries in the world had democracies
o In 2010 there was a massive increase in democracies, raising to 59%
- As society is modernizing, they will then become politically modernize
- In democratic states, the people(or demos) is sovereign in oligarchies on the
other hand, the few have the position”
Aristotle, the Politics
- “Polyarchy is a political order…in which citizenship is extended to a
relatively high proportion of adults and the rights of citizenship include the
opportunity to oppose the vote out the highest officials in the government”
Robert Dahl on Polyarchy
Democracy’s Virtue:
o Liberty
Freedom
Association
Speech
Being able to say what you think without getting punished for
it.
Our rights to disagree
Liberty allows us to deliberate in democracy, to argue, to
debate through political institutions
o Equality
Not only economic equality
Political equality
As a citizen of democracy, you enjoy the rights of that
citizenship
No matter the race, gender and wealth, in the political system
we are all equal
In a democracy, we are all equal
Modern liberalism: liberty and equality of the individual
If we fail that we fail ideals of democracy
Law enforces this
o Rule of Law
Violating these rules means you violated the system
o Pluralism
Liberty and equality = pluralism
Multiple interests
Interests lead to job opportunities
Democracy is about compromise against this pluralism
Through elections we put together all interests
o Institutionalized uncertainty
Losers of elections are never in the outs
Democracy is uncertain; not knowing who wins the next
election
Democracy’s Fragility
- There had been plenty of regimes of democracies where they fall apart
o A total of 53 cases of democratic breakdown
o Half of them return to democracy, the other half don’t
Democracy as a Process
“ So far as I know, citizenship in no country carries it the right to vote. The right to
vote is a conferred right in every case…This parliament says upon what terms men
hall vote…No oriental whether he be Hindi, Japanese or Chinese, acquires the right
to vote simply by the fact of citizenship.” Hugh Guthrie, MP, 1920
- 1920, white women allowed to vote
- 1963, the universal franchise act passed, allowing everyone to vote.
What are the Foundations?
Building Democracy’s Foundation (1)
o Modernization Theory
Economic transformation
As society became more sophisticated, you sold your
surplus
In order to trade, we now have infrastructure
Trading system
Technology

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Description
rdOctober 3 2011 POL101Lecture Modern Democracy we take democracy for granted the apartheid in South Africao political economic and social system o example of racial segregationo south African blacks were discriminated against 80 of the population blacks werent allowed to voteo Continued until 1994 Would you go to prison to fight for or defend democracy o In 1975 only 29 of countries in the world had democracies o In 2010 there was a massive increase in democracies raising to 59As society is modernizing they will then become politically modernizeIn democratic states the peopleor demos is sovereign in oligarchies on the other hand the few have the positionAristotle the PoliticsPolyarchy is a political orderin which citizenship is extended to a relatively high proportion of adults and the rights of citizenship include the opportunity to oppose the vote out the highest officials in the government Robert Dahl on Polyarchy Democracys Virtueo LibertyFreedomAssociation Speech Being able to say what you think without getting punished for it Our rights to disagree Liberty allows us to deliberate in democracy to argue to debate through political institutionso Equality Not only economic equality Political equality As a citizen of democracy you enjoy the rights of that citizenship
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