Nationalism and Conflict
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Ideology of nations. A nation is a group that wants to have its own state.
Nationalism is not the product of nations. Nations are the product of nationalism.
A nation is a group of people who believe they share a common fate, history, culture and
Nationalism says that state and nation should be congruent. Each nation should have its
Primordialism – sees nationalism as natural
Moderism – sees nations as created by modernism, in the course of the Industrial
Revolution, an elite project of the universalization of high culture through education
Occurs only under modern conditions.
Never before in human history did people insist that their leaders be of the same culture
and vice versa.
High cultures and Low cultures: European monarchs and population.
Industrial society and need for universalization of high culture.
In this way nations are constructed, they are projects of elites, sometimes competing
projects. They don’t exist as things in themselves but are the products of aggregated
But the stakes are very High, if YOUR culture is not adopted as the high and universal
culture, you face systematic disadvantages.
In industrial societies are service organizations for providing common cultures: education.
Cases: Ukraine, Hungary, Slovakia.
Sate first, nation second: France and England – “nation-building”
Nation first, state second: Germany and Italy – unification only in 1870s
Most countries in later periods are multinational or if national contain significant
minorities. What to do about it?
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