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Lecture 19

POL101 Lecture 19

8 Pages
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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL101Y1
Professor
Jeffrey Kopstein

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Origins & Functions of the Modern State
1.Modern state is something between an empire & a city
2.Process of sovereignty building in ?Europe
3.State-building as a protection racket: "organized crime" versus "organized crime"
4.Hobbes: from security dilemma of "war of all against all" to modern "leviathan"
5.Weber: "monopoly of legitimate use of violence within a given territory"
6.Functions: A. Despotic -- (Weberian); B. Infrastructural -- (Regulatory)
7.Some are good @ A but not B; some are good @ neither
8.Subordinates to Ottawa (e.g. CPP, etc.)
Origins & Functions of the Modern State.wma
Audio recording started: 12:21 PM March-07-11
9.Americans have a cowboy, we have a uniform-ized Mounted Police; contrast between
the two
` wandering Canadian plains, the armed Canadian mounted police
` he could be "Law" unto himself, yet why does he phone back to Ottawa, under
command, etc.
10.Subordinates himself to the centre - how does that actually come about?
How/why do these guys, in the middle of nowhere, feel obliged to find out what people
sitting far away want/would think (bec e.g. Mounties, have superior weaponry, etc. ->
could draw & shoot American cowboy style, alone in wild, etc.
11.All kinds of failed state-building projects
12.State-building -> protection brackets; people @ the centre
` go to countryside, speak to nobles to speak to peasants: "if I can control your
weaponry, pledge your loyalty to me, etc. in turn I will make sure nobody comes & kills
you"
` e.g. Parking your car to see opening Raiders, someone says, "if you give me ten bucks,
I'll make sure your tires don't get slashed" -> a protection bracket
` the mafia has done that for a long time
- state-building projects & organized crime
- state-building is always an in-progress project, never finished
` Al Capone a notorious gangster - but why wasn't he arrested (by Chicago police)?
(was totally out in the open, a bootlegger, breaking the law)
` he "collaborated with" / owned the local state -> the politicians, police, judges, etc.
were all in his pocket (the local Taliban, had set up a state within a state) (who wasn't
in his pocket, he killed)
~ Elliot Nas finally charged him (the FBI) - the US gov't had to take people @ a level
above local (FBI) & send them into the city -> had to actually recruit ppl, give own
guns, offices, means of authority, etc.
` the only way they could get him was by charging him with not paying income tax;
couldn't actually charge him with all the murders etc.
` the state-building project not complete, the control over violence is not complete ->
means of control @ their disposal, separate from
` over time , tactics used by FBI to get local KuCluckx(?) clan
13.Two projects, competing against each other
` that battle goes on & on (even in Canada)
www.notesolution.com
14.Thomas Hobbes
` living in 17th C England (civil war going on, very violent, horrible) - [think present-
day Afghanistan] - no centralized authority, living in state of pervasive fear
` Hobbes: how can we get out of this? The natural state that we're in, (the natural
condition) - referred to as a "war of all against all" - in such a condition, life is nasty,
brutish & short - how can we escape from this condition?
` given each of our individual knowledge/psychologies, the only thing we can do to
escape from the state of nature is to take our own individual sovereignty & to hand it
over to a sovereign above us all
` "big, large & scary" -> a "Leviathan"
` "dare not act against each other, or else the punishment will be terrible" - only way to
escape
15. John Locke
16.The state of nature, not as bad as Hobbes says it is; but we do need to have a
sovereign above us in order to have liberty, happiness, etc.
17.All of this, given human psychology, raised interesting question of: "okay, so
I've handed over my sovereignty to this thing, this Leviathan, this modern state,
because I fear the alternative is to live in a state of war - under what conditions can I
withdraw my consent? You, Leviathan, you're no longer fulfilling your end of the
bargain..."
18.Hobbes was so worried that he argued as long as the State is fulfilling its end
of the bargain, you can never retract your consent
` provides physical security (without, wouldn't feel that obliged to subordinate own
sovereignty to that entity any more, would exert own sovereignty)
` born into it, cannot exit
19.Compulsory
20.Eventually Weber comes along & "indeed, what the state is, what's the
definition, how do you know you're dealing with a state (& say, not a duck), how do you
know you're looking @ a state?"
21.Controls legit use of violence within a given territory (a monopoly over that
use)
22.Canada has a state
23.Lack of control, lack of monopoly over [legit] violence in a given territory
Q&A
` e.g. Greece -> competing state projects in Greece -> ppl who didn't know who to pay
their allegiance to (Sparta or Athens, etc.)
24. Insofar as they control use of violence within their territory, satisfied
requirement; but also asserted sovereignty, control, claim to ownership of places
without right to legit control
[Ancient Greece]
25.How're modern democracies able to achieve legitimacy when votes not binding
on politicians themselves? We have representative democracy - for a period, mandate
to do so comes up again; legitimacy receives a winning combo of votes
www.notesolution.com
26. If you don't follow the law, will be forced to do so -> legit bec our system elects
politicians to enact laws
27.Other forms of legitimacy (e.g. King, power since time immemorial, etc.)
28.Violence, contract, key to the whole thing
29.On the other hand, e.g. Afghanistan -> is there a monopoly over legit use of
violence? No. Not only is there not a monopoly, there is no legit monopoly over use of
violence
30.Functions:
31.Power of despotism -> when they have the authority, given the authority, etc.
-> that's just the way it is
` basic in states
32. Infrastructural/regulatory power -> they not only have the right & ability to
use force, also lay down regulations by which society functions
33.Force is ultimately behind everything, but doesn't get used [daily/often ,etc]
` under capitalism, many rules re: how things're supposed to be made, etc.
34.Despotic power is thumbs, infrastructural power is fingers {thumb? Thug?}
35.A lot of dictatorships are all thumbs, no finger
Puzzle: how do you get a modern state?
36.Empirical observation: you need a modern state in order to achieve economic
development
37.But need a certain amount of wealth in order to create a modern state
38.Alternatives: chaos & corruption
39.How do you get there from here?
` an effective state that can tax its population (in a fair/efficient way) to provide certain
goods/services for its population
` this is an empirical issue: look around @ world, which states are relatively
efficient/fair vs. ones that are corrupt (the administrations, e.g. Basic thing of say,
getting a driver's license [you get it or you don't - you don't have to bribe in Canada]
think about that across nations)
e.g. Zaire - no, that's not how it works; that's the beginning of the process; then you
gotta pay someone off to get it
` need relatively non-corrupt state administration; in order to do so, need economic
development -> strong correlation between the 2 factors
` big conundrum -> very difficult to get there from here
` if one requires the other, how do you get one without the other? Either you end up
with chaos or corruption (if you don't have a well-functioning state...)
State Authority in Poor Societies
40.Personalistic (no or fuzzy distinction between the public & private: Saudi
Arabia)
41.Tribal or Ethnic (Africa, Pakistan, Afghanistan) vs. "public" loyalties &
administration
42.Parties tend to be "clientelist" or "charismatic" rather than "progammatic"
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Origins & Functions of the Modern State 1.Modern state is something between an empire & a city 2.Process of sovereignty building in ?Europe 3.State-building as a protection racket: organized crime versus organized crime 4.Hobbes: from security dilemma of war of all against all to modern leviathan 5.Weber: monopoly of legitimate use of violence within a given territory 6.Functions: A. Despotic -- (Weberian); B. Infrastructural -- (Regulatory) 7.Some are good @A but not B; some are good @neither 8.Subordinates to Ottawa (e.g. CPP, etc.) Origins & Functions of the Modern State.wma Audio recording started: 12:21 PM March-07-11 9.Americans have a cowboy, we have a uniform-ized Mounted Police; contrast between the two wandering Canadian plains, the armed Canadian mounted police he could be Law unto himself, yet why does he phone back to Ottawa, under command, etc. 10. Subordinates himself to the centre - how does that actually come about? Howwhy do these guys, in the middle of nowhere, feel obliged to find out what people sitting far away wantwould think (bec e.g. Mounties, have superior weaponry, etc. -> could draw & shoot American cowboy style, alone in wild, etc. 11. All kinds of failed state-building projects 12. State-building -> protection brackets; people @the centre go to countryside, speak to nobles to speak to peasants: if I can control your weaponry, pledge your loyalty to me, etc. in turn I will make sure nobody comes & kills you e.g. Parking your car to see opening Raiders, someone says, if you give me ten bucks, Ill make sure your tires dont get slashed -> a protection bracket the mafia has done that for a long time - state-building projects & organized crime - state-building is always an in-progress project, never finished Al Capone a notorious gangster - but why wasnt he arrested (by Chicago police)? (was totally out in the open, a bootlegger, breaking the law) he collaborated with owned the local state -> the politicians, police, judges, etc. were all in his pocket (the local Taliban, had set up a state within a state) (who wasnt in his pocket, he killed) ~ Elliot Nas finally charged him (the FBI) - the US govt had to take people @a level above local (FBI) & send them into the city -> had to actually recruit ppl, give own guns, offices, means of authority, etc. the only way they could get him was by charging him with not paying income tax; couldnt actually charge him with all the murders etc. the state-building project not complete, the control over violence is not complete -> means of control @their disposal, separate from over time , tactics used by FBI to get local KuCluckx(?) clan 13. Two projects, competing against each other that battle goes on & on (even in Canada) www.notesolution.com
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