Political Science December 6
Civil Military Relations and Democracy
Reading: Huntington, Civilian Control of the Military - A Theoretical Statement, pp.380-
Hastings, The Runaway General
Dunlap Jr., The Origins of the American Coup of 2012, pp.2-20
Problem of the Guardians
•Democracies still live in a world of states
•From feudal to mass armies
•Draft versus professional armies
•Those who fail to feel the armies – you risk losing your state
•Even if you have an army, what kind of army? – Transition from feudal armies
(aristocratic armies ie. In Europe and Japan). Story of mass citizen armies >
question is should you have professional or draft army? Historically, those mass
armies evolve into drafts
•Who guards the guards?
•What is the mode of control of civilians over the military?
•Huntington subjective versus objective
•Coup of 2012: was the problem lack of subjective versus objective control?
•Recent debate: don’t ask, don’t tell
•Militias in US – decentralized people who were armed who were supposed to
protect the freedom of the people; idea was that US would have armed citizenry
•Huntington -> first model = subjective – based on the way people think; all in all
its their commitment that controls them – their commitment to democracy > want
a solider that is dedicated to democracy (if in democratic state).
•In modern world first model was of citizen solider; still used today ->
Switzerland, neutral but armed
•Huntington’s second model = objective – rather than citizenry that’s also soldiers,
you have a clear separation of life and career paths. You have professional
soldiers; commitment is to obey what citizens tell it to do; train to follow orders
of civilians; live ‘cloistered’ a.k.a own lives in bases; have own schools, malls,
professionalized the same way that law or medicine fields are professionalized.
Obey & fights. Idea is to kill people; when you get in trouble is when you get
army to try and do civilian tasks
•Article about McChrystal. Was problem subjective versus objective control?
•Under objectives model president decides what president will do
Military in Poor Democracies
•Corrupt states – so many demands that they cannot be met (the state, parliament
don’t have enough resources to meet demands). State institutions weak and
corrupt = thus, Huntington said in poor countries you get huge amounts of raw
central power that states cannot handle – results in terrorists, street protests; under
these conditions, you would get a coup d’etat