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Lecture 1 09-10-12.pdf

4 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
Jeffrey Kopstein

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The End of History? Francis Fukuyama's Hegelian View On the Nature of Politics • Aristotle - Political Animal • Politics is unavoidable Themes • Democracy, Dictatorship, War and Peace • Regimes, government, • Social science: Make sense of the world • Simplify, Matter > Not matter Democracy and War • Is the world becoming more peaceful? • Francis Fukuyama • Summer 1989 • Berlin wall- significant • Hegel: professor of philosophy • Not just armies, but ideas and values History of Human Consciousness • History of philosophy • Ideas can get displaced, can clash • Ideas stolen by leaders • War = Clash of ideas Ideas and the organization of human society • Ideas are those that organize human society • Ancient: Plato, Aristotle • Medieval: St. Thomas Aquinas • Modern: Liberal democratic state Hegel and Liberal State • Hegel and the battle of Jena: Victory of "Liberty, equality and fraternity" • History of ideas would never be surpassed • History was over due to lack of new big ideas to challenge status quo • "Theory alone that helps us transient this poverty of the human condition" • For each age, study of human consciousness Fukuyama • Hegel was right but he was a bit off • Few challenge to come along: Nazisim and communism • Those would still pose a challenge to modern ideas • Not 1806, but 1989 • The big challenges have all been defeated in realm of ideas • Challengers are gone, Communism is a powerless idea • Religious fundamentalists are not universal and therefore not a real challenge Where does that leave us? • World of peace, trade, democracy • No more wars of big ideas • Liberalism always wins • We should look for the big challengers • No one willing to follow or sacrifice for new ideas • In this sense, history is over Clash of Civilizations? An Examination of Huntington's arguments • Berlin wall, important in global politics • Speculative about future world order • Many became known for speculating • Francis Fukuyama, Samuel Huntington • Fukuyama looks through the lens of the victor • Liberalism winning was seen as arrogant Huntington • 1973- 40 democracies to 114 • 1974 - 2010, 53 democracies broke down • Alternative conceptualization of new world order Alternative World Order • Fukuyama had a narrow reading of world history • Saw his views as short sided • "Liberal peace and prosperity" are illusory • Inequality, contested citizenship, exclusion
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