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Lecture 20

POL200Y1 Lecture 20: Hobbes, Leviathan, Chapters 13-16
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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL200Y1
Professor
Ryan Balot

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Nothing good/bad, all we seek is power/money because it makes it easier to
achieve what we desire
Life is meaningless - once we grasp, it is easier to accept / have a good life
At this time in Europe, many are dying over religious issues - meaning of life
lies in beliefs
All necessary to support premise : shouldn't be brave because there is nothing
worth dying for
Way the world should be
Meaningless lets us behave in more rational ways
Aristotle: natural way of life is to live in polis and engage in politics
The commonwealth is not a gift of God / nature
Novel claim of political equality
We're all equal --> no one has greater claim to authority
What about inequalities? - not applicable in other circumstances
(getting you places)
Equality / inequality with respect to Aristotle --> depends, virtues
distributed unequally
Lowest common denominator - everyone else agrees all political ruler-
ship depends on merit / virtue
(1) Everyone has equal ability to kill another
Overestimate wisdom, understand world better
Rule of wise never came into being --> people won't accept that
someone is smarter / better rule
Doesn't matter whether we truly are equal, but that no one wills submit,
or give us the right to tell us what to do
Rather take chances relying on selves - state of nature
As good as others, as much of a right to goods, mutual fear / war
(2) all think they are more intelligence than others
Competition : invade for gain
Dissidence : defend against
Chapter 13 - of the natural condition of mankind
Lecture 2.8: Hobbes,
Leviathan
,
chapters 13-16
March 2, 2017
2:00 PM
LECTURE Page 56
Dissidence : defend against
nature brings people together --> ridiculous, look around and see
evidence
Aristotle:
Debunks princely type - troublemaker, always picking a fight to get more for
himself
Utterly powerless to pursue what you wish
Only power to kill can be exercised
Continual threat of violent death
State of nature is negation of all human ends
Whatever good you wish to pursue you can only pursue in civil society -->
common goal is to escape state of nature in order to pursue good
Greatest evil / harm
*relativist as to what is good for humans, but not what is bad --> one
aversion that is shared by all humans: aversion to state of nature
If end of politics was virtue, most virtuous should rule
If we each pose equal threat, equal rule --> end of politic society (avoiding
violent death)
Treat each other equally: credible threat to cause concern and respect from
the other
Qualities that relate to men in society
Passions that incline peace: consumerism, fear of death, hope to obtain
legally - law-abiding
War: nothing can be un/just - no law, because no common power -->
dismisses the republic
Reason is an instrument of passion
State of nature is most extreme powerlessness
Leviathan liberates power to pursue whatever you'd like
Hobbes is a moralist, egalitarian version
Can't practice morality in state of nature
Nothing worth going to war over --> seek peace
Way to obtain peace is to treat everyone equally
Motive for obeying these laws is fear of others
This is really just self-preservation
Laws of nature are identical of morality - of peace
Chapter 14 - first and second laws and contrast
LECTURE Page 57

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Description
Lecture 2.8: Hobbes, Leviathan, chapters 1316 March2, 2017 2:00 PM Nothing goodbad, all we seek is powermoneybecause it makes it easier to achieve what we desire Life is meaningless once we grasp, it is easier to accept have a good life All necessary to support premise : shouldnt be brave because there is nothing worth dying for At this time in Europe, many are dying over religious issues meaning of life lies in beliefs Hobbes : all human opinionsof goodare arbitrary Way the world shouldbe Meaningless lets us behave in morerational ways Chapter 13 of the natural conditionof mankind Aristotle: natural way of life is to live in polis and engage in politics The commonwealth is not a gift of God nature Were all equal > no one has greater claim to authority Novel claim of political equality (1) Everyone has equal ability to kill another What about inequalities? not applicable in other circumstances (getting you places) Equality inequality with respect to Aristotle> depends, virtues distributed unequally Lowest commondenominator everyone else agrees all political ruler ship depends on merit virtue (2) all think they are moreintelligence than others Overestimatewisdom,understand world better Rule of wise never came into being > people wont accept that someoneis smarter better rule Doesnt matter whether we truly are equal, but that no one wills submit, or give us the right to tell us what to do Rather take chances relying on selves state of nature As good as others, as much of a right to goods,mutual fear war Competition : invade for gain Dissidence : defend against
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