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What is THE REPUBLIC about?
Education- politics is essentially about educating people
Justice- What is justice? More importantly why should I be just? Rest of books portrays
the definition through the example of a just society. Acheieving a certain type of balance
and order in the world.
Philosphy- life dedicated to seeking truth, how you should pursue the truth, offers a
deep view of the obstacles that are presented in pursuing the truth (one of the main
obstacles is politics itself).
The scene is set
Cephalus- Justice is honesty in word and deed.
Polemarchus- Justice is helping friends and harming enemies
Thasymachus – A) justice is the interest of the stronger
B) It is the unjust man who flourishes.
What class is in power that class makes the laws that class tell you
what justice is. This denies the universal concept.
Lecture 2=Audio files on blackboard.
Lecture 3:- Book 2
Glaucon and Adeimantus – Ring of Gyges
City of pigs – True but minimal city
Luxurious city- In need of protection
Book 3, 4
Parts of the soul/virtues of the state
-Wisdom, courage, temperance
-Reason, spirit, appetite
- What is justice?
This class system must be maintained, there is mobility from class to class, but
people are not encouraged to do so. This movement is at the discretion of the
Justice both in the state and the individual is a harmony in which the parts
perform their function correctly. Then it turns out that doing one’s own work, is
justice. Meddling and change between the classes is the greatest harm that can
happen to the city.
Individual and the city
Just person to certain types of actors?
For plato, the just person deals with a certain health of your soul
One can be driven by solely their appetite- not a balance
Perfect balance between your spirit(emotions and passions) your appetites
And well directing with your reasoning, this person is well adjusted – you
are virtuous and hence you make the right choice
1. Type of character will balance as it is governed by reason-will act adjust
2. Why should someone be just?
The appetitive parts are guided by the rational parts- citizens always look at
the short term as opposed to the long term – political community –
indefinite wants- run purely by appetitive, is imbalanced and not well
governed – democracy fundamentally is problematic as it fails to allow
people to make the proper decisions. Meddling when you are not supposed
to -> leads to injustice.