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Lecture

POL201Y1 Lecture Notes - Seed Drill, Flying Shuttle, Industrial Revolution


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL201Y1
Professor
Sophia Moreau

Page:
of 4
POL200Y1: Sept. 20, 2010
The Industrial and Pre-industrial Revolution
The politics of development and the process of development in England
Economic and market society is a new phenomenon and slow to develop, took roughly 600
years…started with trading and merchants
Three ways of organization: tradition, command and market
o Tradition: historically based, to take the profession of their fathers and ancestors, works
because it has worked because, no innovation
o Command: central planning, bureaucratic decisions makers, decide input output,
resource use, production and distribution very little change in circumstances
No separate economic sphere or organization, subordinate to politics and social life (pre19th or
19th century)
o The feudal system: needed to be overcome and undermined to establish the market
System of hierarchy, social relations, static and rigid
Demonstrates the relationship between lords and serfs was social not
economic, dependency on one another
A way of thinking about what the market economy is
Labour, land and property is not a commodity…in the market they must
become commodity
Labour: serfs could not sell their labour, could not move
Land: not considered outside of the social context, piece of territory
they were attached to socially and politically, could not sell it, not a
source of wealth
Property: (does not include land) wealth not turned into capital, not
invested, spent on jewels, spices, products
These are the three reasons that the breakdown of the feudal system lead to
market system
Agricultural system: manors, shared with lord and serfs (who could use common land), low
productivity,
Enclosure process privatization of local land (taking of common lands) in the 18th century, story
of the commodification of land, land from birth right and social reproduction to economic value,
legalized and enforced (by state and government), leads to extreme conflict over a century
o General enclosures act of 1801: supports enclosure of property, government is taking
away public property
o Why did the lords enclose lands? Main reason increased productivity of the land,
number of inventions that made land more productive, concentrated into the hands of a
few leading to investments…before this surplus and productivity was not a priority
Inventions: the seed drill, thressing machine, crop rotation (clover, put minerals
back into fields no fallow periods), the plow, etc
Selective breeding: Mendel (productive seeding)
Known as the agricultural revolution, increased productivity, massive increase in the
production of food, precondition of industrial revolution
POL200Y1: Sept. 20, 2010
Important social and economic effects of enclosure, mainly 2
1. Enclosures forced people off the land and created a labour force, course of the 18th century
people are compelled, yet free to sell their labour people flocked to towns and cities
2. Increased food production, first time most people don’t have to be involved in agriculture,
surplus can be used to feed factory workers
Industrial revolution 1750s- 1850s
o Productions was mechanised, surplus, labour sold, transportation was revolutions,
foreign exchange, people bought instead of produced the goods they used …changed
the physical geography of the land over a short period of time
o First innovations/ factories were in textiles, before 1760 textiles were mainly domestic
done by women and children, long gruelling process, no common standard done
through a putting out process by merchants
The ‘flying shuttle, the jenny’ (spin dozens of threads)
1769: ‘The Waterframe’ (stretched the cotton before spinning) greater than
what human force and labour could do
Archright: waterpowered factory located in Comfrod, employed more than 600
workers (women and children)
One invention creates the need for another invention, one machine cannot function without
the component parts (forward and backward linkages in textiles not necessarily in other fields
as well)
Thousands of inventions, in a very short period of time, massive productivity increase
Britain first created a patent system….could make money therefore more incentive to invest
time and money (class of people who identified themselves as inventors and investors)
o Crucial role of the government in creating a market
Changes in the way work was performed (the domestic systems disappeared replaced by the
factory system)
o small mills, water-powered, near river side before the invention of steam engine,
working conditions were terrible, employ women and children because lower wages
than mane
Factory was the first start to urbanization (migration of workers to factories)
Industrial revolution was powered by coal mining, Britain is rich in coal giving them a head start
o Moved through man power, therefore women and children desired because they were
small…slow and dangerous movement methods, later sped up by the use of carts and
ponies…production gradually increased through improvements to mining 1800-1829
increase by 2.5 million tons to more than 15 million tons ….most important innovation is
steam engine which removed the water build up, mines could go deeper
Steam engine, invention belonging to Watt
The steam engine: most important invention of the industrial revolution, every field relied on
the steam engine
POL200Y1: Sept. 20, 2010
Improvements in the iron industry came throughout the 18h century, intense heat needed for
smelling was produced through the steam engine….previously does through coal but was nto
hot enough, used for tracks, bridges and trains
Transportation was also crucial, moves products to market, raw material to factories, improves
cost, essential for distribution of food, core of industrial revolution
o Canals and rivers were means of internal transportation
o mid 1700s construction of canals in England (which had a lot of rivers) very efficient as
opposed to horses….done before railway system
o late 1700s railways were first used in mines (moved things from face of production to
transportation)
o 1800s there are more than 200 mines of tramway serving coal mines, engineers looking
for a way to combine steam engine and carts tramway pulled by horses
o 1829 contest took place to determine best locamotive (Stephenson’s Rocket)
o Railways dominated for almost a century
Capital: became another way to attain wealth, preindustrial it was land, now there were
factories and machineries
o Capitalist: backgrounds were very diverse (leftovers from nobility, etc); investments
Industrialists needed long term and short term capital
o Long term: factories development, not as difficult as short term capital
o Short term: for raw materials, problem of credit until manufactures got investment raw
producers could not get paid…system beginning to break down
o Problem trying to find money to page wages…lead to formation of banking system (early
start in Britain over other nations) credit, money lending, private creditors, etc creates
capital flow; early 1700s full-fledged by early 1800s
How does it affect human life and well being
o Condition of living in the industrial cities and working in the factories were terrible
o 12 to 14 hours a day, exhaustion, sickness, poor wages, dangerous machineries, families
could not support themselves unless every member (including children) worked
o 18th century population in Britain grew faster than ever
Higher birth rate
Lower death rate
Elimination of plagues
Higher availability of food
o People could also marry earlier in life in the industrial system because apprentices
before could not until completion of masterpiece, younger people had more choice in
potential partners
o Housing eventually improved, factory employers provided housing to workers, providing
greater control over workers
o Rampant spread of disease due to poor sanitary conditions