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Lecture 1

POL201Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: French Revolution, Planned Economy, Eurocentrism

Political Science
Course Code
Abbas Gnamo

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September 19, 2017
The creation of the Three Worlds of Development
The First World
The Second World
- Former socialist countries
- Centralized command economy
- Only North Korea and Cuba still claim loyalty to socialism
Third World
- Groups of countries with a colonial history and are in the process of developing
economically and socially from a status characterized by low incomes, dependence on
agriculture, weakness in trading relations, social deprivation for large segments of society
and political and civil liberties
- Ideology driven
- Associated with the west and western discourse
- All countries of the Global South (except Australia, New Zealand and Japan)
- Not all at the same levels of socio-economic development
- “third world” nebulous concept regrouping al countries of the global south, big, small,
rich and poor
- under regimes: socialist, capitalist and different authoritarian regimes
- diversity of human experience and socio-political organizations
Common Characteristics
- colonial history and political independence (decolonization)
- social well-being (limited access to health care)
- poor integration into the world economy
- Regime types (different political cultures)
- Lack of national integration (lack of a referent culture)
- High population growth compared to the growth of the GNP
- Poverty – Low per capita income and widespread deprivation for the majority of the
- Poor infrastructure and limited modern technology
- ‘third world’ was invented by Eurocentric division of the globe into three worlds of
development and loaded with negative meanings and implications
- Alfred sauvy coined the term after the French revolution “tiers etats”
- Sauvy applied it in the context of the cold war
- Corresponds with decolonization and the emergence of new nation-states, the advent of
globalization and technological revolution which made the world a smaller place after
Labelling in International Development
- Labels, words, talks about development tends to be ethnocentric, masks power relations,
and create only the illusion of reforms
- What do labels do?
oShape public policy making
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