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lecture #2

Political Science
Course Code
Sophia Moreau

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POL 201: Lecture 2
September 20, 2010
- what were the conditions unique to britian that made the industrial revolution that
made it happen there, or happen there first
- the way in which the government was implicated in creating the market
Industrial Revolution:
- first took place in Britian
- distribution and production through a market were slow to develop (economics
and markets)
- took roughly 600 years
- identifies three ways: tradition, command, market (economy)
1. traditional: exact same way as it was done historically, same way they have
always been done (functions because it has functions before) limit: no
2. command: central planning, beurocratic decision makes decide what will be
produced and where it will go (soviet union most popular example for their five
year plan)
- up until the 19th century the production and distribution of goods was primarily
decided by tradition and command
- development of a field of economics, economics production and distribution
should have its own sphere ! big change
- one of the transformations that is most relevant: feudal systemneeded to be over
come and undermined in order to generate the possibility of the market! system
of hierarchy- based on historical obligations (serfs tied to a piece of land and to a
particular lord for generations) ! relationship between lords and serfs was one of
social obligation
- Feudal system: three things
1. labor is not a commodity: serfs could not move, and could not sell their
labor, didnt receive wages, could not exchange
2. land is not a commodity: not considered outside of its social context
(where families lived, grew their food) couldn’t sell their land, not a
source of wealth
3. property is not a commodity: wealth was spent on jewels, had no
productive value, not invested, no development because it was not
- transformation makes these things commodities
how do we have the breakdown of the feudal system:
- manners used the open field system
- commons, everyone was able to use
- agriculture innovation would change everything
enclosure: the privatization of common land – lord took that land back and privatized it
(1801) enclosure movement! the story of the commoditization of land, the
transformation of a birthright and a social unit, to a productive unit of society
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- enclosed this land by force
- legalized and enforced through a series of acts throughout the 18th century
- culminates in the general closure act in 1801
- land must become a commodity and has to be privatized, the government steps in
and passes these laws
- government is instrumental in taking this newly private property
why do we have this transformation?: why are the lords perfectly satisfied with this?
- main reason: hadn’t been relevant, wasn’t a great deal you could do with surplus,
and weren’t a lot of ways to produce surplus
- increased productivity of the land
- because land became more productive, concentrated in the hands of a few
- seed drill
- threshing machine
- plough
- crop rotation: cloverputs minerals back into the soilland is always productive
- selective breeding: crossing seeds to produce more resistant crops
privitization of property ! increaded productivity, land is turned into a commodity, it
can now be possible with these innovations and inventions
! all of these things produces the: agriculture revolution – precondition of the industrial
revolution (creates more food)
social and economic effects of the enclosures that laid the ground work for the industrial
- forced people off the land and created a labor force ( serfs were transformed into a
labor force)
o people began to flock to the factories and the new industrial centres
o people are now free and forced to sell their labor
o not only turning land into a commodity, but also people
- increaded food production: generates a food surplusthe majority of people do
not have to be engaged in producting the food they will eat the surplus food can
be used to feed factory workers
industrial revolution:
mid 1750s to 1850s
- production was mechanized
- people began to sell their labor for wages
- surplus was created and used for capital
- goods were moved long distances
- most people started to buy rather than produce the goods they consume
- first innovations and factories were in textiles
- prior to the industrial revolution, and even during its early years, entrepreneurs
provided poor families with raw materials for spinning, weaving and garment
making in their own homes, early 19th century print of englis family
- changes occurs in the early 1700s
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