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7 Dec 2010
October 4, 2010
o Venn Diagrams:
Factory Employment; Production of Surplus; Economic
Specialization !
Urbanization; Literacy; Media Participation !
Union Organization; Political Organization; Demands for
Universal Suffrage
o How can we make the example in Great Britain play itself out in
other parts of the world
o Mostly, modernization theorists had it wrong; Some countries have
appeared to follow the model of modernization leading to
democracy, but most did not
o What explains persistent wide disparities in wealth?
o Colonialism Maps throughout the 1900s
o Among the 94 countries in the world, 64 are former colonies
o Most of those are developing countries
o We see a correlation between a status as a former colony and
poverty today
o This is a big part of what social scientists do - try to find causality
and explanations of why certain things vary
o Develop accounts of how and why colonialism might have led to
o Two readings for today are giving us similar but not quite the same
o One looks at Nigeria by looking at pre-colonial conditions and then
on to the second world war and beyond
o Nigeria does not become Nigeria until colonization in the 1900s
o The reading doesnt really dwell on this but this is important
o In the so-called scramble of Africa, the colonial powers drew
boundaries that arbitrarily excluded different groups the
boundaries of present-day Africa stays and are based on those
colonial boundaries
o The first part of the reading focuses on conditions of Nigeria
o It is important to be attentive to starting conditions
o What was their level of development 100 years ago?
o Pre-colonial starting point:
The political system
The slave trade
Technological capacity
o Yoruba Kingdoms (picture)
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Different Strengths In the South and the North
o South:
Yoruba kingdoms
Knowable for two reasons: each one had very little political
power the kings shared power with the chiefs in very
diffused authority patterns
They were never amalgamated into anything stronger
Very little political power loosely allied, not centralized, very
little power
Little extractive properties they cannot extract labour; they
cant collect taxes; they have no way of coercing their
populations or raising armies of resistance
Theyre fairly easy to conquer and penetrate
o When the British try to expand inland from the coast, they do not
meet much political resistance
o North:
Sokoto Caliphate in 1893
Large, centralized
Common religion: Islam speaks to the idea of identity
Greater extractive capacity
It was able to engender economic development
Offered some resistance to colonial rule
o Will Colonialism be practiced differently in the north and in
the south?
Slave Trade (Decimated Population)
o The region was involved in the slave trade since the 16th century
o Large parts of Africa are still today under-populated in ways that
undermine development, productivity and penetration of the market
o Some people identify the slave trade as an important contribution
to underdevelopment
o Between 1650 and 1860 approximately 10 to 15 million enslaved
people were transported from western Africa to the Americas.
Low Technology
o In most traditional societies, the common agricultural tool is a hand
hoe plowing is unknown
o Eventually Nigeria would produce cotton and indigo to develop a
small textile industry but this is still very rudimentary
Traits of Colonial States
o Indirect Rule (Lord Lugard)
Allow subjects to keep a portion of the taxes they collected
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