Lecture #2

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POL201Y 2nd Lecture
September 20th, 2010
Head TA: Melissa Levin Melissa.levin@utoronto.ca
Industrial Revolution
Economic society, market society
Transformation from feudal to market econ. Too 600 years, from 13th century to 19th century
oStarted with band of traders moving from village to village across Europe
oCulminates in the industrial revolution
Kyle bronner identifies 3 ways to organize economies of the world
oTraditional economy
Sons go into same trade as fathers
Trade guilds ensure goods are produced that is uniformed and resistible to
Changes in tiny ways from generation to generation
Problem with it is that there is no innovation; you are stuck
In order to generate the possibility of the market, the feudal system had to be
Serfs owed labour to the lord, lord owed protection to the serfs
Serfs not allowed to move; from father to son through generations
Socially obliged to be dependent on one another
3 things that are important to understand about a feudal system:
Labour is not a commodity
oSerfs could not move, did not receive wages in return for their
labour and their labour thus was not a commodity; it was not
something that they could exchange
Land is not a commodity
oLand was not considered outside of its social context; it was
where people and their families lived, it was where they grew
their food, it was a place they were attached to socially and
politically; it was not a source of wealth
Property is not a commodity
oWealth was spent on jewels and other things that did not have
any productive value; it was not invested, it was not invested as
oCommand economy
Central planning
Soviet union 5 year plan
Little room to change circumstances
Organized by bureaucrats
Organized by tradition and command
Economic sphere
The open field system
oA share went to the lord, the rest split up amongst the serfs
oMost of the land in the centre of a village was common land
oThe other fields were separated; for example, one field went to barley, one for animal
grazing etc
General enclosure act of 1801 gave the land back to Lord who in turn changed the land into
private property and brought forth the commodification into a productive unit; a unit of economic
A transformation in the meaning that is attached to land
Legalized and enforced; a slow process which starts from the ground up
Lords started to enclose land by force; legalized by force through a series of govt acts to establish
the legal rights of manorial lords to do so
Finally, the quarrel (about a century) between lords and serfs finally culminates in the General
Enclosures Act of 1801
oLand has to be commodified as a precondition of the industrial revolution
oThe govt steps in to pass these laws on behalf of the lords/manor facilitating the
enclosure of property
Why does this happen? Whats going on? What influences such a massive change?
oIt had not been relevant to have overly-productive land because there were no incentives
to produce surplus
oA number of inventions and innovations made land more productive and it was because
land became more productive which focused it into the hands of a few
oThe mechanization of agriculture includes the seed drill, threshing machine, steam-
engine tractor?
oThe invention of crop rotations
oSelective breeding; crossing seeds to produce more resistance strains etc
oIncentive comes from produced productivity of the land
oAgricultural revolution paves the way for the industrial revolution; a major pre-condition
A lot of socio-economic effects of the enclosures; however mainly 2 laid groundwork for IR
oEnclosures forced ppl off of the land and created labour force
oEnclosure of commons = serfs transformed into labour force
oPeople start to flock in large numbers to Britain and the industrial areas
oEnclosures turning land AND people into a commodity
oIncreased food production
Generates a surplus; innovative in the sense that for the first time in history, a