POL201Y Jan 17th Notes
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-Historical characteristics of state society in third world
-move into discussion on authoritarian regimes
-try to understand what those mean for transition to democracy
Main Characteristics of state-society in 3rd world
-attempt to control masses in their society, how incorporate certain groups for
objectives of the elites, do they try to cope to social forces, etc etc
-so how do they do it in 3rd world countries historically
-in terms of s-s relations: patrimonialism, corruption, clientalism, corporatism
-these are 4 historical main features of the society in 3rd world
-Patrimonliams: refer to max weber... its reflective of traditionalist state, a
state prior to advant of modernity, so in terms of how we have understood
statehood, we understand it in traditional linear calculations. Patromonial is in
traditionalist terms, its system articulates kind of authority with focus on
leader. Loyalty, kinship ties to leader, and public office is exercised as private
property. The resources of state used privately by the small elite, the resource
dished out to supporters and followers. (i.e. classic case is like country
borrowing from the leader).
-Corruption: idea of corruption: sometimes can be very misleading, you often
regard every problem to corruption of the third world or developing countries,
but we have to be careful when we do this. corruption has been an important
way in which state-society functon in developing world. Corruption is illegal,
it's not sanctioned, it takes place when public officials confers benefits and
services to access and finance things/individuals that they may not be entitled
to, thru bribes for example. Various levels of corruptions. Basic level of
corruption: giving advantages in lines for example to people u know, very
small scale corruption. For some corruption, it could be greasing the wheel of
a terrible system, may push the system to function. On higher level, the
corruption can influence policies via underhand payments to influential leaders.
Super-PACS: money through super-pacs, legalized through supreme court, as
long as not governed by candidates, they can recieve money that doesn't
necessary need disclosing, thus can recieive millions of dollars froom sponsors,
breaking the 2k donation rule, these often funded by lobbyists, these are legal
so are they corruption? they certainly resmble corruption. So corruption is
usually a threat to government, they mean that not all of us are equal, not all
of us have capacity to pay off any levels of the state like rich niggas can.
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Some societies like transparencyinternational try to measure levels of
corruption. For example, transparencyinternational, looks at how much has
been exposed, but corruptions often not exposed. Direct correlation with
corruption and less democratic states, democracy has ability to root out more
corruption than not.
-Clientelism (patro-client relations): refers to relations of exchange between
patrons and client. It's unequal and vertical, the patrons hold the power. It is a
mutually beneifical relation. The patron provides goods, access services to the
market in exchange for client support, obedience, etc. Often, and not often,
the support can also come in political support. The arrangement is not fully
legal or contractual, but not illegal either. Based on informal understandings.
It is widespread across the 3rd world, not restricted to 3rd world. So as in the
case of corruption ,we can ask the question, does clientelism grease the wheel
of a rusty state? Is it a threat to democracy. Think about that not only in
terms of 3rd world. The universal citizenship can't be applied to clientalism
since individuals plugged into this system has access that most of us don't.
The difference between corruption and clientelism is nuanced, but there is
-Corporatism: we want to understand the type of relations between state and
groups in society. corporatism is system of interest-representation in which
certain units are organized into a number of singular or compulsory non
competitive units. An example is they recognize or liscense or even created by
the state a representational monopoly over the interest they are set to
represent. they given this monopoly in exchange for observing certain controls
on selection of leader, articulation of demands, etc. A unit has a say in the way
the state functions, in exchange for reigining in the demands of the
constituents. An example is : remember when we talked about state-
capitalism/developmental state? State-business-labour arrangement usually.
Business would reign in on labour. the Agreement is for sake of national
growth of economy. State helps the business organization crush competitions,
could be the arrangement, for example.
Democratic and Non0democratic regime
-we'll look at whasts preconditions for democratic regimes.
-we will looka t those types of state-relations
Types of Non-democratic Regime emerged in developing world:
Communist or capitalist
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