Women gender and development
Patriarchal Engender Model
-maintained by use, of force etc
-think of high rates of domestic violence
-way to tame and domesticate women thru use of force or violence, though
individualized, it has social context, disciplined within social context manifests
into private public sphere
-women play key role in production and labour force, they literally for only
reproduction, secondary also for key functions of children
-women play key roles in raising the boys who at 1 point will subordinate
women, so they are complicit in their own subordination.
-thirdly: key role in reproducting and producting, they also do household
chores, which frees up employment for men
-household is the important space in which welfare is provided to workers.
-unpaid labour of women, domesticated labour allows capital to underpay
workers, because they don't in turn have to do household stuff
-women disproportionate amount of community work to maintain community,
they do welfare work, even if paid, its verypoorly paid work.
-another elemnt of sexual division of labour: work in home is not recognized
socially or analytically since we tend to draw a line in what goes on in a market
price and what goes on in private sphere.
-so we are able to calculate in GDP terms, in all sorts of economic measures, in
what is consumed and what is produced.
-Domestic work which is work is invisible, no mechanism to calculate
-so the patriarchal engender model exists in the crude way, represnted in very
crude and broad way
-reality is that in developed world, not restricted to this model, its not because
we ended the dichotomy here or ended the egalitarian
-theres been huge changes in our economic situations, developed world
middle-class women has been able to become educated, incomes, more
empowered by virtue of changes in legal setting that tends to benefit women,
-in addition, whats happened and in particulary in developing world, austerity
mesures, neoliberal models, work more insecure and tendency is for women to
take the place of men in insecure jobs
-what unions have won for typical male workers across the globe, in neoliberal
corporations today is to roll back and give those shitty jobs to women,
undermining union powers a little.
-the jobs we see in multicorporations in develooping coutnries are often
unskilled low pay jobs, they have restrictions on worker organizations in those
-Aganbin: export processing zone, which are zones of exceptions, behind the
walls of these export procesing environment, the usually laws that pertain to
societies at large no longer exists. Like hard working for welfare etc, are rolled
back in these export proecessing zones, and the main work force in these
zones is women. Why? cause women can be treated in exceptional ways in
ways men can't be treated.
-what does this do? this traditioinal engender model, where women
domesticated. What it's done is that its added to an already burden female-
ness. You see literature that this is the triple burden that women go through
they do household, they work for living and do welfare stuff in community
-women in outside workforce dont uproot the burden, they reinforce the
-2/3 of the world's work, 10% of the world's income, they own 1% of the world's
-Now, given this scenario, as students of dev, ask if dev is good for women, has
dev been good for women.
-some scholars suggests that socio economic modernization has adversely
afected women in developing countries in short and medium term
-women being exploited more in developing coutnries. i.e. africa - agriculture
mechnaization: benefited male cultivaters disproportionately and negatively
affects female farmers.
-those who benefits from new tech is gona benefit existing patriarch system, so
unless mechanization comes with socio revolution of male-female equality,
then the male will always disproportionately benefit
-but modernization in loonger term will benefit women more positively only in
sense that education opportunities nigh rate of literacy, women being aware of
their rights, and increasing capacity to defend those rights.
-dev is always gona be winners n loeers, at the moment, women in developing
countries are on losing sense for schizzle.
Neo-liberalism for women
-debt crisis, sap, advent of neoliberalism across globe
-we know negative effects arleady, particularly cuts to social program,s income
inequality etc, economic instability, unemployment, etc
-ppl pushed to informal sectors, etc.
-we know all stuff above already.. but what about for women specifically
-impact of neoliberilism on women: challenge to know whats going on. strongs
tatements for either way.
-diane elson: read it
-sexual divison of labour: we can infer from studying this aspect, do read diane
-as mentioned before in many instances: increased women in labour force but
under substandard conditions, so moving to subem0ployment or informal
sector, this is due to women in position where theya re constrained by system
-its not so uch that a choice that women has, but out of necessity they need to
move into these positions
-dbl and triple burden increases problem for women,
-as asuterity increases, their burden incressed even more
-privatization and liberaliation, the introdcution paritcuarly to land tenur will
erode to access to commual settings
-communal lands riight that existed for women even if a little bit good before,
is stripped away by privatizing lands as well
-slutions: require open mechanism, and policies most effe3ctive in
guaranteeing their rights and minimize bias against them that undermines
-look at actual ideas as how to deal with exploitation of women
-serious constraints are obviously in place, generally regard to neo-L
-we have to remembr as pli scientists, that the proceses are often political, not