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Lecture 1

POL201Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Global Health, Dialectical Materialism, Feudalism

Political Science
Course Code
Sophia Moreau

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Pol201 lecture 2 \18:02
The First World
North America, Western Europe, japan, Australia and new Zealand and
Russia added after 1990s
Shared liberal Democracy and capitalism
Political stable since 1945
High degree of industrialization and urbanization
Large middle class, modern and large cities and highly educated population
The Second World
Former socialist countries including USSR, Cuba, Eastern Europe, Cuba North
Command economy
Some degree of industrialization
Have undergone radical economic reform since 1989
Only North Korea and Cuba are the remaining socialist identity
The Third World
All countries of the south except for Australia, New Zealand and japan
Not all countries are not at the same level of socio-economic development as
The name third world comes from a Alfred Sauvy in 1952 as he was thinking
about the third estate during the French revolution.
It corresponded with decolonization and the emergence of new states and
technological revolution which the world smaller place after ww2
South= poor and not as rich with large wealth inequality
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Non Alignment
Third World diversity and classification
Large countries China India Indonesia, Brazil, Mexico
Oil rich- Arab states, Nigeria Venezuela
NICs Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan
Landlocked states
Small island states
Sub classifications of the Third World
The Fourth World- poorest of poor GDP less than 1000
Lower middle income countries-GDP between 1000 2500
Upper middle income- GDP above 2500 high inequality- South Africa
Upper middle Income- more equal (NICs)
The Communists
Wealthy oil producing states
Common Characteristics of Third world
Colonization and political independence
Almost all experienced imperialism at some point
Latin America gained independence in early 1800
Came through constitutional negotiation or armed struggle
Numerous negative legacies of colonialism and imperialism reflected in
artificial boundaries, political violence and dictatorship
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Most important commonalities
Low per capita income
High unequal distribution of wealth although some have relatively more
equitable income distribution
Low consumption of energy and inadequate
Unemployment, substandard housing, poor health conditions problems of
landownership or land policies, taxation and welfare programs
Integration into the world economy
High dependency on exports
Heavy dependency on agriculture
More labour force in agriculture than in developed nations
In NICs people tend to work in industry rather than agriculture
Social Well being
Inequalities as indicated by health and education, are also found between
urban and rural areas. Poverty in rural areas, malnutrition
Gender Gaps
Women do worse than men in terms of health, nutrition, and education
Regime types
Authoritarian and soft state
Even if elected democratically
Dictatorships of all types
Lack of national unity
Internal divison along ethnic, religious and cultural lines due to colonial
division of borders
Absence of common culture to unite people
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