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Lecture

lec. jan. 24

8 Pages
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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL201Y1
Professor
Sophia Moreau

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DEMOCRATIZATION JAN 24
There have been 3 waves, where democratization increases, there is a peak, and then there is a
decline in decmoracies, then there is another wave and so forth.
The first wave was a long wave n lasted from 17 to 19 century.
-democracy was achieved through long processes and was done through Britain and france.
-in the firstwave the cause was modernizataion, demands for voice and political participation,
urbanzaition, rise of middle class, etc. democracy came about as a result of revolution because
people rose up from below and demanded representation
2nd wave:
After wwII, the 15 years or so thereafter, where countire became democratic through
IMPOSITIONwhere demoracy is imposed by the winning powers of wwii.
-the bigger story is the story of decoloiniation, the formation of new countries, most new
democracie that arised as a result of the second wave, became democratic through
decolonization. So thats the 2nd wave, and that also explains how and why it happens.
The third wave, is different.
-it begins in april 1974, when the portugese dictatorship was overthrown in a military coup.
-the Spanish dictator Francisco fransco, held off the border to spain, and both coutnries were
present in a catholic culture, and at that time catholisism wasnt supportive of democracy. The
portugese argmed forces were split between conservative, moderat, and Marxist factions. The
triump of democracy in Portugal was the beginning of a long wave of decmoratitization that
lasted for 3 decades. The third wave of democratization began in april 1974, there were only 40
democacies at the time, most of them were industrialized countries.
-since 1974, democracy which we are defining as a sytem of govnerment in which there are free
and fair elections as well as frequesnt.
While the Spanish transition to demoracy was increasing, military rule also began to unravel in
latin America, the military withdrew in favour of elected military govnerments.
-where military rule had been more economically successful, the transition was delayed, but it
came to chile in 1989. By mid 1980s, so you got from late 1970-mid1980 signified
democratization in latin America.
In the mid 1980s demoratization spread through asia.
By 1991, Pakistan bagladesh Nepal had all become democracies, as well as Thailand was going
thrugh democratization.
-by 1987, the third wave had spread to the point where 2/5 states everywhere in the world had
become demcoracies, but that still left gaping holes in eastern Europe and Africa and middle
east.
-at this point democarttization was not yet global.
-in 1989, with the fall of berlin wall and collapse of soviet union, marked an enourmous moment
of democattic transition. By 1990, most states of easter Europe began to demcortizise. The
collapse of communism and the end of the cold also brought changes to AFRICA, but why?
www.notesolution.com
Why Africa? Its clear why end of cold war affected Europe, but why Africa?
-the danger of the cold war was that the two superpowers the soviet union and US would engage
in nuclear war, leading to mutually assured destruction,and very harmful nuclear fallout in the
rest of the wolr,d but infact this never happened, neither side pressed the nuclear red button.
-but that doesnt mean the cold war wasnt fought, there were proxy wars, the Vietnam war and
Korean war were examples of thiese proxy wars, the super powers were fighting over whether
these coutnries would all into communist or democratic sphere of influence during such times of
instability.
-wars were fought in places that were either strategically important or where it seemed likely that
it was up for grabs on which way the govnerment in those countries would go to, communism or
democracy.
-amyn many many of these proxy wars were fought in Africa.
An example is the WAR IN INGOLA – started basically when that country gained independence
in 1974, as a result of the coup in Portugal, so when Portugal became democratic in 1974, the first
thing it does is give up its colonies, including INGOLA, when Portugal gave up ingola, it caused
instability. There were three groups of rebels who were struggling for power in that country, they
were fighting against the colonial rulers, they now were fighting amongst each other in order to
gain govnerment power.
-when one group one the other 2 groups were still fighting for power. The government of ingola
identified itself as socialist, as a socialist govnemrnt it received hep from cuba and the USSR.
-directly south of ingola is south Africa, and nibibia, nibibia also belonged to
south Africa. And so south Africa which under apartheid rule was a western allied country,
south Africa wa afraid ingola would become a communist country, and so south Africa declared
ingola a military threat. So south Africa becomes involved in the fight between the ingola rebels
and the ingola govnemrent, on the side of the rebels, they were trying to topple the ingolan
government.
-once the war started this way, people saw this dispute as a matter of geopolitical importance in
the context of the cold war. Naturally once Africa came on the side of the ingola rebels, the US
and the CIA becomes involved, in which the US gave weapons and soldiers. So now you have
what might have been a local conflict turned into a major site of international warfare, CUBA
and USSR started sending troops to ingola as well. All of these rich countries are fighting it out
in ingola, for 20 years.
At the end of the cold war, 1989-1991, all of a sudden the ussr, cuba, even south Africa, stopped
caring, everyone withdraws, everyone goes home. This isnt the only case, its happening in el
Salvador, Nicaragua, etc. no one cares about the war anymore, everyone withdraws support, the
people negotiate, the weapons and money dries up, etc.
----so the cold war took an enourmous toll on the global war, and in countries like this where
civil war was raging, there was no capacity for instition building, rule of law, etc. all of these
proxy wars is preventing coutnries from undergoing any sort of trnasntnion to democracy.
www.notesolution.com
-starting from 1990s much of Africa is free from the cold war, and so many African coutnries
start to negotiate democratic agreements and democratic govnerment institons.
-in feb. 1990, there are 2 events that launched a new wave of democratic transitions in Africa.
1st.:
-in Benin, the people rose up against the govnemrent and started a transition to democracy. In
south Africa the apateid regime released nelson mandela, which led to the first democratic
elections in south Africa.
At the time of this 1990s there were only 3 democracies in afrcia.
-earlier in the 3rd wave democracy had been attempted in gana, Nigeria and sudan, but in each
case it was broken down.
-but there was then a rolling tide of democratization, Africa in this period came under heavy
pressure from international donors, but also from their own peope, so most govnemrnts in Africa
were forced to have opposoition parties and elections. The continent suddenly witnessed
elections. By 1997, only 4 african states were not democratic.
-to appreciate the depth and beath of the third wave of demoxcarttiizaiton, in 19974, there were
41 coutnries among the 150 states of the remaining 109 sattes, 56 of them turned into
democracies, and of those 56 fewer then 10 are not democracies today, so we are still in the 3rd
wave. The 4rd wave was the biggest wave.
-today about 3 5ths of all states are democratic.
-so thats the 3rd wave, a description of the 3rd wave, and how widespread it is, when it happened,
etc.
Now we turn our attention to how and why it happened.
WHY????
In the 3rd wave democarcies came about not as a result of long social processes, but through
negotiation, they came about
The central question of tranistions literature and modernization literature are answering the same
question, how coutnrie become democratic.
Moderniaationst theoirists are gue that dmeroacitiaiton is a long process, driven by social forces,
cultural and economic transformation. Modernization can explain the first wave, but not the 2nd
and 3rd. democratization is basically a social process that culminates to democratic
isntntiisaitons.
-democracy come about as a result of long social processes. In fac modernization theory is an
accurate representation of the way the old democracies did in fact emerge. In the first wave of
democratization, modernznation is really the true story of how these democracies came about.
Modernization does a good job of explaining what happened during the first wave. The problem
modernsnaitno runs into is then it then anticipates that every other country in the world will be
on the same process. Thats the problem of modernznation theory, whats right in modernzantion
theory is that it accurately explains how the first demcoracies emerged, the accurately saw the
history and imposed that theory on the present and the future and the rest of the world.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
DEMOCRATIZATION JAN 24 There have been 3 waves, where democratization increases, there is a peak, and then there is a decline in decmoracies, then there is another wave and so forth. The first wave was a long wave n lasted from 17 to 19 century. -democracy was achieved through long processes and was done through Britain and france. -in the firstwave the cause was modernizataion, demands for voice and political participation, urbanzaition, rise of middle class, etc. democracy came about as a result of revolution because people rose up from below and demanded representation 2 wave: After wwII, the 15 years or so thereafter, where countire became democratic through IMPOSITION where demoracy is imposed by the winning powers of wwii. -the bigger story is the story of decoloiniation, the formation of new countries, most new democracie that arised as a result of the second wave, became democratic through decolonization. So thats the 2 wave, and that also explains how and why it happens. The third wave, is different. -it begins in april 1974, when the portugese dictatorship was overthrown in a military coup. -the Spanish dictator Francisco fransco, held off the border to spain, and both coutnries were present in a catholic culture, and at that time catholisism wasnt supportive of democracy. The portugese argmed forces were split between conservative, moderat, and Marxist factions. The triump of democracy in Portugal was the beginning of a long wave of decmoratitization that lasted for 3 decades. The third wave of democratization began in april 1974, there were only 40 democacies at the time, most of them were industrialized countries. -since 1974, democracy which we are defining as a sytem of govnerment in which there are free and fair elections as well as frequesnt. While the Spanish transition to demoracy was increasing, military rule also began to unravel in latin America, the military withdrew in favour of elected military govnerments. -where military rule had been more economically successful, the transition was delayed, but it came to chile in 1989. By mid 1980s, so you got from late 1970-mid1980 signified democratization in latin America. In the mid 1980s demoratization spread through asia. By 1991, Pakistan bagladesh Nepal had all become democracies, as well as Thailand was going thrugh democratization. -by 1987, the third wave had spread to the point where 25 states everywhere in the world had become demcoracies, but that still left gaping holes in eastern Europe and Africa and middle east. -at this point democarttization was not yet global. -in 1989, with the fall of berlin wall and collapse of soviet union, marked an enourmous moment of democattic transition. By 1990, most states of easter Europe began to demcortizise. The collapse of communism and the end of the cold also brought changes to AFRICA, but why? www.notesolution.com
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