Why Africa? Its clear why end of cold war affected Europe, but why Africa?
-the danger of the cold war was that the two superpowers the soviet union and US would engage
in nuclear war, leading to mutually assured destruction,and very harmful nuclear fallout in the
rest of the wolr,d but infact this never happened, neither side pressed the nuclear red button.
-but that doesn’t mean the cold war wasn’t fought, there were proxy wars, the Vietnam war and
Korean war were examples of thiese proxy wars, the super powers were fighting over whether
these coutnries would all into communist or democratic sphere of influence during such times of
-wars were fought in places that were either strategically important or where it seemed likely that
it was up for grabs on which way the govnerment in those countries would go to, communism or
-amyn many many of these proxy wars were fought in Africa.
An example is the WAR IN INGOLA – started basically when that country gained independence
in 1974, as a result of the coup in Portugal, so when Portugal became democratic in 1974, the first
thing it does is give up its colonies, including INGOLA, when Portugal gave up ingola, it caused
instability. There were three groups of rebels who were struggling for power in that country, they
were fighting against the colonial rulers, they now were fighting amongst each other in order to
gain govnerment power.
-when one group one the other 2 groups were still fighting for power. The government of ingola
identified itself as socialist, as a socialist govnemrnt it received hep from cuba and the USSR.
-directly south of ingola is south Africa, and nibibia, nibibia also belonged to
south Africa. And so south Africa which under apartheid rule was a western allied country,
south Africa wa afraid ingola would become a communist country, and so south Africa declared
ingola a military threat. So south Africa becomes involved in the fight between the ingola rebels
and the ingola govnemrent, on the side of the rebels, they were trying to topple the ingolan
-once the war started this way, people saw this dispute as a matter of geopolitical importance in
the context of the cold war. Naturally once Africa came on the side of the ingola rebels, the US
and the CIA becomes involved, in which the US gave weapons and soldiers. So now you have
what might have been a local conflict turned into a major site of international warfare, CUBA
and USSR started sending troops to ingola as well. All of these rich countries are fighting it out
in ingola, for 20 years.
At the end of the cold war, 1989-1991, all of a sudden the ussr, cuba, even south Africa, stopped
caring, everyone withdraws, everyone goes home. This isn’t the only case, its happening in el
Salvador, Nicaragua, etc. no one cares about the war anymore, everyone withdraws support, the
people negotiate, the weapons and money dries up, etc.
----so the cold war took an enourmous toll on the global war, and in countries like this where
civil war was raging, there was no capacity for instition building, rule of law, etc. all of these
proxy wars is preventing coutnries from undergoing any sort of trnasntnion to democracy.