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Political Science
Course Code
Sophia Moreau

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Liberalism grew out of a struggle between the parliament and the stewards of the
British. In the 17th Century the public ruled the nation and not the Monarch.
Public Authority in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 where power was founded to
be in the hands of the people and where the sovereignty can be removed if the
public sees its governing is not fit. And so the monarch must rule within the law of
the people thus no one is above the law so that means that the sovereign is
subjected to the rule of law.
People can rise up and eliminate leaders if they are no good. The triumph over
traditional legal authority.
JOHN LOCKE argued that the people deliberately create government to be
governed rather than to be in a state of anarchy because they seek protection.
Means security is the basis of the government.
Four Principles of Classical Liberalism they see it in negative terms. Protect the
community within and outside the community.
1.Personal Freedom
a.Free of coercion
i.If an action of one man interferes with someone elses freedom.
ii.Freedom is infinity till it hurts others.
iii.John Stewart says that government can intervene where one
individual is hurting someone else. But the government cannot
interfere with ones freedom.
iv.Negative conception of freedom in that it presumes a prior and
natural state of freedom in that regardless the government
cannot interfere with freedom. Negative rights:
1.Free speech
2.Free religion
3.Right to private property
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4.Right of political opposition
2.Limited Government
a.Limits the control of the government over the humans
i.The state provides the security of the community and the
protection of private property
ii.Public sphere and a private sphere. The private sphere is big
and not controlled thus a limited government.
iii.Liberals during religious war the idea was that the Church and
the State must be separate. That the Church is private and not
the concern of the state here limiting the power of the state.
iv.John Locke says that religion cannot belong to the state. For the
state cannot care for the state. And religion cannot mesh --with
the state because it has no part in politics.
3.Equality of Rights
a.All people should be covered under the law and are ruled under the
law regardless of class or race
i.Justice must be blind to status for justice to be justice.
ii.Meant equality under the law but doesnt mean that it would
guarantee everyone can vote or economic equality.
iii.In liberalism economic distribution equally would violate the
property of the rich which is why the rich may be getting richer.
There is a difference between freedom and equality. If achieving
equality means the limits of freedom of others it could not
really work. This probably why communism doesnt work;
freedom of people is nearly taken away for the equality of
4.Consent of the Governed
a.Practical statement of popular sovereignty
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