oIn Britain, it is governed by convention.
•Came under sharp criticism following cases of abuse in Nrthern Ireland (torture in the form of
oInstances of discrimination that would not stand in a policy with a written constitution
(lack of family reunification, differential age of consent)
oAnti-terrorism legislation was introduced every year during the crisis.
oLed to movement for a written constitutin because of the misuse and discrimination
oHas not succeeded, though the incorporation of the ECHR has given the UK a regional
bill of rights.
•2.5 Party System, much like the UK.
oEmerged at three key junctures: 1867 reform act extending the vote to propertied males
o1918: representation of the People Act, all men and only women over 30!
oFreezing hypothesis: developed in response to the British party system by Stein Rokkan
Should all these political movements become separate political parties?
•E.g. student, women and gay party??
Class divisions: conservative and labour parties.
Parties form the basis of British politics – they are the anchor of the entire
o1. Prime Minister of the largest party in parliament is asked by the Queen to form a govt.
o2. Govts. Rule with the confidence of the House. And the Government may fall at any
time. Confidence is expressed thru the parties.
o3. Members of the party forming the govt. are bound by the doctrine of collective
responsibility to vote with the party. The corollary doctrine is Cabinet responsibility,
allowing dissent within but not outside f the Cabinet. Collective responsibility if
enforcing thru the “whipping System”
o4. The Opposition and the Shadow Cabinet are not bound by these ecotrines to the same
degree, but tend to follow…
•Dominant: Conservative, Labour and Liberal