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Lecture 6

POL208Y1 Lecture 6: International-Governance

Political Science
Course Code
Dr.Mark Yaniszewski

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International Governance
A set of customs, practices, relationships, or behavioral patterns of
importance in the life of a community or society; institutions are the rules of
the game, the norms that regulate behavior; they generate repetitive and
predictable behavior; they define the social constraints and opportunities
that actors face
)nstitutions define the menu of available practices Young – they constrain
choice and establish predictability
Sovereignty; balance of power; reciprocity; negotiations
Specific: UN General: multilateral diplomacy
Additional types of international institutions
International organizations (IOs): IGOs; NGOs
International Regimes: a set of formal/informal rules, norms of behavior, and
at times, organizations set around a specific issue area in international
o Regimes are often, but not always, codified in international treaties
and managed by international organizations (governance without
All IOs are institutions; but not all institutions are IOs
All international regimes are institutions; not all institutions are
international regimes
Can we think of institutions/organization/regimes as actors?
Some believe that institutions are like puppets for states so they have no
independent impact; they are completely a reflection of interests of states
This is believed by the realist school
On the other hand some recognize that institutions are created by states
however once created they get a life of their own and are no longer under
control of the state
Why should we have institutions in IR?
A rationalist/realist explanation: the permanent interests of states to put
their normal relations on a stable basis by providing a predictable and
enforceable conduct with respect to these relations Morgenthau)
Reducing transaction costs a cost incurred while making an exchange or
an interaction) through: the provision of information; coordinate
expectations; increase the probability of iteration and enable enforcement
through reciprocity
If there were no benefits from cooperation- there would be no institutions; if
cooperation were easy (i.e. did not involve transaction cost)
Solutions for game theory and the need for cooperation
Repeated iterations
o Tit for tat
o The shadow of the future
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