POL208Y1 Lecture Notes - Garrett Hardin, Neofunctionalism, Developing Country
Dependency theory- development and underdevelopment emerged simultaneously. Some
nations are developed and some are underdeveloped, one just feeding off the other. Depedency
theory argues that all countries are modern, even developing nations, they are not behind in time
rather exist as a result of modernity. Underdevelopment happens under the condition of resource
extraction. Developing nations are the way they are because of the way they have been interted
into the world system. The development of some depends on the underdevelopment of others.
Example - industrial revolution depended on resource extraction.
Dependency theory states that developed nations only reached their level of development
through the exploitation of developing nations. Developed nations are referred to as the "core".
Latin America is part of the "semi-periphery", and the "periphery" are the developing nations of
today, such as African countries. These developing countries remain in the periphery and
continue to be exploited by developed nations today to remain in their positon of power. The
semi-periphery prevents a union of power within the Global South to enact structural change of
this system. (I think the theorist was Waltsman?)
Modernization theory- All nations develop in the same way. This theory assumes that there is
only one idea of development - contemporary "modern" societies and that all other nations will
take the same path to development (through industrialization) to reach the point modernity.
Key Theorist: Walt Whitman Rostow (development trajectory)
Race to the Bottom-
This is a socio-economic concept that is argued to occur between countries, states, provinces or
territories as an outcome of globalization, free trade,neoliberalism or economic deregulation.
When competition becomes fierce between geographic areas over a particular sector of trade and
production, governments are given increased incentive to cut business regulations, labor
standards, environmental laws and business taxes.
Absolute vs. Comparative Advantage-
Ricardo's Comparative Advantage: if everyone chooses free trade then global welfare is
maximized. However, free trade benefits some and hurts some since it is not equally benefitical.
Stolper- Samuelson Theorem: if you are a owner of relativetly abundant resrouces/ facts of
production, then you are going to benefit from free trade. Owners of scarce resources benefit
from protectionism and loose out from free trade.
Guns vs. Butter-
Club of Rome / Limits to growth-
Declarative / Constitutive treaties-
Legal positivism/Natural Law-
Pacta Sunt Servanda-
Responsibility to protect-
A United Nations initiative established in 2005. It consists of an emerging norm, or set of
principles, based on the idea that sovereignty is not a right, but a responsibility. It focuses on
preventing and halting four crimes: genocide,war crimes, crimes against humanity, and ethnic
cleansing, which it places under the generic umbrella term of, Mass Atrocity Crimes. The
Responsibility to Protect has three "pillars".
1. A state has a responsibility to protect its population from mass atrocities;
2. The international community has a responsibility to assist the state to fulfill its primary
3. If the state fails to protect its citizens from mass atrocities and peaceful measures have
failed, the international community has the responsibility to intervene through coercive
measures such as economic sanctions. Military intervention is considered the last resort.
Life boat ethics-
This is a metaphor for resource distribution proposed by the ecologist Garrett Hardin in 1974.
Hardin's metaphor describes a lifeboat bearing 50 people, with room for ten more. The lifeboat is
in an ocean surrounded by a hundred swimmers. The "ethics" of the situation stem from
the dilemma of whether (and under what circumstances) swimmers should be taken aboard the
lifeboat. Hardin compares the lifeboat metaphor to theSpaceship Earth model of resource
distribution, which he criticizes by asserting that a spaceship would be directed by a single leader
— a captain — which the Earth lacks. Hardin asserts that the spaceship model leads to
thetragedy of the commons. In contrast, the lifeboat metaphor presents individual lifeboats
as rich nations and the swimmers as poor nations.
This is a world view term usually expressing concern over the use of limited resources available
on Earth and the behavior of everyone on it to act as a harmonious crew working toward the
greater good. The metaphor was first used by Henry George and the the thesis is that the
everyone is in it together and therefore should help everybody else.
In economics, an externality is a cost or benefit which results from an activity or transaction and
which affects an otherwise uninvolved party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit. For
example, manufacturing activities which cause air pollution impose costs on the whole society,
while fire-proofing a home may improve the fire safety of neighbors. If external costs exist, such
as pollution, the good will be overproduced by an unregulated market, as the producer does not
take into account the external costs when producing the good. If there are external benefits, such
as inpublic safety, too little of the good would be produced by private markets as producers and
buyers do not take into account the external benefits to others. Here, overall cost and benefit to
society is defined as the sum of the economic benefits and costs for all parties involved.