POL208 sept 25 realism liberalism
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September 24, 2012
Paradigms are just deep
assumptions about how the
realm of IR works
- Actors follow their self-
- Places emphasis on the
acceptance of facts and
analysis of their cases
Politics of reality. Based
on practical rather then
moral or ideological
Paradigms are theories about deep assumptions about how the IR works
Most of the time in natural sciences. There is a paradigm. It rules the field,
however due to holes in the paradigm it gets replaced. In the social sciences
this doesn’t occur. in the social sciences you can’t really test out theories so
there are numerous paradigms.
Realism- the realist “A-team”
- A-team: Hobbes, thyucicdes, Bismarck,
- Bismarck- realpolitik
1. Famous for uniting Russian and Germany.
2. Careful and ambitious.
3. The unification of Germany and led Germany to become a super
4. Realpolitik is the politics of realities. It should be practical and not
passed on moral ideologies.
5. The politics of reality: politics based on practical rather than moral
or ideological considerations.
6. Conservative. Minimalist/expansionist, militaristic (don’t be afraid to
use your military)
7. It doesn’t matter if a cat is black or white, so long as it catches mice”-
Deng Xiaoping (famous for signing the Unholy alliance)
8. Power politics, actor’s following their self-interest.
- E.H Carr – twenty years’ crisis 1919-1939
1. Realism: “places its emphasis on the acceptance of facts and on the
analysis of their cases and consequences” Carr 1939
2. He thinks that policies that are led by ideologies and moral end up
doing more bad then good.
3. Carr is the one who coins the word realism.
4. He critiqued the idealism. He thought that people after WWI were
just naive. They put their norms and values ahead of them.
5. The term itself already suggests that we are the most important
paradigm so just go ahead and reject the others.
- Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679
1. He said his mother gave birth to him during wartime and it was a
premature birth cause of fear of war. Also that he might have had a
twin who died because of the given situation
2. Studied at oxford. Spent a lot of time in libraries. He was obsessed
with the Peloponnesian wars. Eventually translated the first history
of them into English.
3. Became a tutor for a rich kid. He took the kid of tours to Italy and such
and there he was introduced to Galileo. And started to like
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State of Nature: how do
people behave in the
beginning? In a very raw
environment that is not
governed with rules or
- Man is selfish
- Everyone is equal and
rational and wants to
- Right of nature: is the
passion to survive and
one will do whatever in
order to survive.
- The right justifies
violence and to enforce
peace we have the state
- Creation of the leviathan
- Leviathan has ultimate
- Keep in mind that
morality, justice and
property are NOT
- The state is never wrong
The domestic analogy can
be translated into
4. When he returned he wanted to do what Galileo did to the stars. He
wanted to organize things, especially politics, under laws and rules.
5. He starts with a scientific endeavor. About the same time the English
civil war starts so this causes him to flee to France. He starts with the
book he starts with the book that talks about relationship. It isn’t
successful so he rewrites it. This time it is shorter and more concise.
6. Leviathan: very complex book on relationships. Starts with a thought
experiment. How did society look like before it existed?
7. State of nature: a thought experiment
8. For Hobbes the answer is a war of every man against every man”
9. The situation is quite bad that you can’t even sleep because you can
be killed. Fear overrules everything and you can be killed any
10. Life is “solitary, poor, nasty brutish and short”
11. We escape the state of nature? The solution the state.
12. Argument #1.
-Man is selfish, hedonist, of the voluntary acts of every man; the
object is to do some good to himself.
- All people are equal, rational and possessing a passionate love of
survival. (Right of nature)
- In order to protect my right we might have to betray the right of
-Persons right of nature justifies violence against everybody else.
- All the interest of personal survival people will come around to
agreeing that they should renounce their right to use violence. We
can collectively give up our right.
-Since there is no one to enforce it you can do anything.
-The state therefore enforces peace and justice –the leviathan
13. Argument #2
- The creation of the Leviathan enforces stability-citizens give up
their independence to buy stability
- The leviathan gets ultimate authority and a monopoly over the
use of violence.
- Another thing that we take for granted-morality, justice and
property are not natural rights. They only exist because we have
the state. Are social constructs imported by the state and exist only
so long as the state is strong enough to impose them-they are tools
for maintaining stability rather than inherent rights.
-All else is constructed and doesn’t exist if the state of the nature
right doesn’t exist.
-Law is dependent on power. “Legal positives”: justice is whatever
the law says it is. An “unjust law” is an oxymoron. An unjust law is
as if the law is disagreeing with itself-not possible.
14. BULL: THE DOMESTIC ANALOGY. It is to take Hobbes story and to
get it to one level of analysis up. Instead of speaking on individual we
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