Domestic analogy: institutions solve the problem of anarchy. The quality of institutions affect the stability of the solution. Kant rejects the separation between the moral imperative and the political realm (machiavelli) Following self interest will lead to the perpetual peace in the vast grave that swallows both the atrocities and their perpetrators . There is unavoidable historical progress towards world federation - but we have the obligation as rational human beings to speed the process. To reach peace: the civil constitution of every state should be republican . Economic and social interaction across borders should be encouraged. Modern reading of the kantian peace: democracy, trade, international organizations. Adam smith (1776) - the wealth of nations. Laissez-faire: minimal governmental intervention in economic affairs. War will erode these bene ts -ergo the more we trade, the more we have to lose if there is war, so . The wilsonian moment (january 8, 1918) woodrow wilson.