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POL208Y1 Lecture Notes - Immanuel Kant, Robert Keohane, Perpetual Peace

Political Science
Course Code
La Haine

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The Liberal Solution
-Domestic analogy: institutions solve the problem of anarchy
-The quality of institutions affect the stability of the solution
-Domestic structures matter; institutions matter
-Rights exist independent of power
-Progress is possible
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
Kant!s perpetual peace:
-Kant rejects the separation between the moral imperative and the political realm
-Following self interest will lead to the “perpetual peace in the vast grave that swallows
both the atrocities and their perpetrators”
-There is unavoidable historical progress towards world federation - but we have the
obligation as rational human beings to speed the process.
-To reach peace: “The civil constitution of every state should be republican”
-A world federation should be established
-Economic and social interaction across borders should be encouraged
-Modern reading of the "Kantian Peace!: democracy, trade, international organizations
Adam Smith (1776) - The Wealth of Nations
Economics and Peace
-Laissez-faire: minimal governmental intervention in economic affairs
-Humans are rational profit maximizers
-Trade will lead to benefits
-War will erode these benefits -ergo… The more we trade, the more we have to lose if
there is war, so…
-More trade leads to less war
The Wilsonian Moment (January 8, 1918) Woodrow Wilson
The speech on the 14 points.
1. “Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas”: “The removal, so far as possible, or
all economic barriers and the establishment of an equaliy of trade conditions”
2. Self determination: “a stict observation of the principle that in determining all such
questions of soverignty”
3. “A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenents for the
purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial
integrity to great and small states alike” -> Collective security
-Robert Keohane
-A new, more "scientific! liberalism
-Can we think of structural conditions that would induce cooperation - without relying on
assumptions regarding human nature, morality, or natural rights?
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