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lecture 1

Political Science
Course Code
John Haines

of 2
Lecture 1
Three crucial events
1. Decision to drop the bomb in Hiroshima
2. Fall of the berlin wall in 1989
3. 9/11-terrorist attack
-from these three events we are still living with the shadow.
-on Aug 6 two nuclear bombs were dropped on Hiroshima, killing 200 000 people.
-First time nuclear bombs used
-this decision to drop the bomb ended WWII
-how was this decision was unanimous, which causes mass murder killing 200 000 civilians.
-the main reason why such a decision was made was because the US was at war.
-the invasion of mainland Japan was done because it would save American lives and Japanese
lives, in the form that less soldier casualties.
-from US perspective the bombing was a mass murder
- the nuclear bomb was the tip of the campaign for US
-President Armand Truman was inexperienced with international affairs. He was unaware of the
nuclear project, the Manhattan project which was top secret.
-the VP didnt even know about.
-Truman was feeling the pressure and signed a paper to pass the project.
-Truman was just a pawn in the whole scenario
-Diplomats, this bombing would show Russia and the world that US was the most powerful
nation in the world.
-Russia was USs ally but there was a lot of tension.
-why didnt the US just show the Japanese a demonstration of the bomb on a stranded island?
Scientists were not sure if the bombs would work.
-these bombs were so powerful that it changed the whole world. This bomb is 10 times stronger
than TNT.
-one single bomb can waste a whole city. There is no defense or shield against an atom or
nuclear bomb. This changed the whole world.
-the decision was unanimous and there was no discrepancies. Britain and Canada agreed with the
-the fall of the Berlin wall was a surprise to everyone, even to the Germans. No academic could
predict the fall of the Berlin wall and the cold war.
-the object was to decrease the pressure on the soviets because the arms war was so hot.
-sending tanks to stop a freedom demonstration in the USSR, that era is gone.
- Iron curtain inside Europe that divided communism and democracy.
-In a conference it was stated that freedom of travel was allowed in Germany. So, hundreds of
thousands Germans went to the wall on brought it down.
-Non-tangible elements, is the flow of information between both sides of Germany, east and
-the flow of money from west Germany to east Germany.
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-9/11 attack by Al-Qaida was out of the blue.
-there was a failure of intelligence.
-the leader or official may have 50 reports on his desk about Al-Qaida planning an attack on US.
-if there is not any operational evidence action cannot be taken.
-the way Al-Qaida planned the attack was out of the blue.
-the use of an American airliner to carry out the attack
-there was no way to stop the attack.
-Al-Qaida used the openes of the US system to conduct the attack.
-Y Al-Qaida attacked? There were US troops in Saudi Arabia at the most religious Muslim place.
-4 airliners were hijacked in 15 mins. These hijackers were planning 3 years in advance. The
hijackers were trained in the US and Europe.
-The impact of 9/11 on American society is deep and profound.
-before 9/11 the strategy was to use force, where there was zero US casualties. Ex: in Kosovo the
attack was from high altitude. After 9/11 that strategy was changed.
-if your president during 9/11 you have to ask. What could happen tomorrow? Something a lot
-9/11 changed the use of force in Washington.
-non-state actors were used to carry out the attacks.
-there was instant communication between these terrorist groups.
-world politics is also about personality and character of an individual leader.
-the role of decision making. The position of advisors, the institution they do represent, they’re
respective. It matters so much
-structure of govt and the type of system the govt is. The freedom of choice is different.
-the characteristics of the society itself. Economic conditions are resources available. Culture is
very important.
-the relation among states. History of the relationship.
-emerging interdependencies between China and US.
-moving from bipolar world to a unique polar world and now to a multi polar world.
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