POL208Y1 Lecture Notes - Al-Qaeda, Liberation Tigers Of Tamil Eelam, Far-Left Politics
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November 23, 2010
POL 208 Lecture
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These economic theories try to underline factors between continuous rebellion and continuous
something inside state
Crucial factor- ethnicity
A Premodule affiliation that can easily generate violence. As an instrument in the light to
mobilize public support
Gained concept of ethnicity widely discussed.
- The ethic fragmentation of a society is not the most important element explaining civil war.
What is key is the dominance of one ethnic group over another.
- Not fragmentation rather than polarization
- (existence of 2 or 43 main ethic groups), Fragmentation refers to a bigger number of ethnic of
o t Seems to be important vibe. The specific time of ethnic afflation is important; could be
through local tribes, common language, through religion, but the way ethnicity is actually
cemented is important in the explanation for civil war ethnicity is a background
o What matters the most I s the manipulation by an elite regime by this ethic component.
Melochovic in Serbia manipulated ethnic background to fulfill its own ethnic ambition
o The brother of ethnicity is hard to asses. Some say its so imp that ethnic is nearly impossible
to over come
Its so embedded that the only way out of a conflict between diff ethnicity is in fact a
partition. Once you h
The prospect of... the best way to end civil war that conflictionisto partition.
War on Iraq- Shia and Sunni war was so high, many scholars argued that only way to end
civil conflict was to partition Iraq to divide it into at least 3 diff countries
- Civil war in Yugoslavia gave to the rise of aids to new countries And these borders of these
countries were decided on ethic conflation
- I.e. Bosnia not doing too well because of this reason.
o In a few weeks time the question of partition will be headline in newspapers cuz regarding
Partition is perceived as a better way to end violence in Sudan than sticking to a united yet
IF believe ethnicity is crucial factor THEN some will argue partition is the only way out.
What matters most is bringing security as it allows diff ethic groups to reach across to
x By bringing security you can diminish ethic opposition and violence
x The main ide behind "surge" of Iraq WAS to bring security to ground so
security condition was restored
x So if security is a way out then partition is not a good idea.
- Countries that have suffered civil war for so long that the ide of national gov is shallow
o Somalia, wallowed and criminal gangs are fitting against each other, not the national gov cuz
national gov has ceased to exist (fiction where gov can control a very small part of territory)
These premodern conflicts are very difficult to address
One way is to try to rebuild the state and effort of community is focused on building
national army and police force;
x This is what is trying to be done in Afghanistan. t bulk effort to bring security
on ground and to rebuild the state of Afghanistan. The
o 1) Over all a success story îoPoÇ(]oµYMM
o Ide is only way to end civil war is by restoring the authority of the state. So last words on c?
conflict. Civil wars much more common than interstate wars.
In terms of casualties, civil wars are most common of death
- ISSUE of international Terrorism and its Nature
o 911 attacks
o Terrorism is old phenomenon
o Terror was used by French state to describe after state violence after French rev
o Terrorism has evolved to describe the tactic the use of violence by small groups to achieve
o Terrorism is a form of irregular warfare. A tactic performed by the week
o Diff types terrorist activities and movements
1) Left wing terrorism
x Ideology was grounded in the opposition thats grounded in premaker
o Red brigade in Italy, Bibermine in Germany, Shining pass in Peru ( all these belong to radical
left wings terrorization
2) Right wing: ideology similar to fascist, turnists. One of the most bloodiest attacks in
the US was conducted by right wing activist
3) GET NAME:
x Local agenda of achieving independence. The terrorist group ECTA in Spain
linked to independence of basked regime, Tamil tigers in Sri Lanka etc. t Separatists
- Common feature of diff types of terrorist is that their use of violence is limited. All flow same
tactic: a few ppl dead but a lot of ppl watching. Targets were most of the time highly symbolic-
official members of gov or army, royal family. High symbolic targets triggered the kind of media
attention that these groups were looking for Use of violence limited because by keeping
casualties low they were able to maintain their domestic support.
o Level of causalities was acceptable by the ppl supporting these groups. If increase in the level
of ECTA in Spain. By using violence on a larger scale, ecta stated to lose domestic and local
support for their agenda. All these groups have been part of the landscape of European
countries for at least last 15 years.
o After 911 that changed fundamentally. The terrorists behind 911 wanted a LOT of ppl killed
and wanting. The mass casualties was an objective in itself
New type of terrorism: scared/ religious terrorism : Al Qaeda
New type seems to offer new features t the large number of casualties, 911 killed
nearly 3000 ppl ,attack in Madrid 2004 cost live of 200 ppl t íð]((}u]v]v}v]v
Madrid, London 2007 t 52 ppl killed- bombs in tube and 1 in bus. Bali- 300 ppl killed
x Trned here mass number of causalities is objective
o Several attempts have been fought- most imp to explode 10 aircrafts from London to US
caught just before }][ board the planes.
o Second aspect of new terrorists is their global reach. Asia, Europe, US.
o Seems to be active in countries like Yemen, Somali, Pakistan, and Afghanistan
Al-Qaida means the base, the network.
In Afghanistan and Pakistan they seem to conduct terrorist plans all over the world.
The ideology behind al Qaeda is aiming at the west for what they are doing and what the west
o 3rd aspect is the relationship with globalization
These terrorist using feature of globalization that we are in everyday life, they use
technology to recruit sympathizers around the world. The peak of the Iraqi conflict and today in
x Using Westside? To recruit potential members. In Europe more than 10000
citizens recruited by Al Qaeda affiliates were recruited to fight in Iraq?
x Use info technology, websites are used, any attempt to shut down this
x Use globalization in the tactic they use. They turn assets of globalization
against countries. 911 was civilian aliars used as missiles. Problem is everything can
become a weapon.
o The most worrying aspect is the use of weapons of mass destruction. So not a surprise that
after 911 a large number of countries worried about likelihood of nuclear terrorists. After 911 if
civilian aligners maybe their groups can use nuclear devices that can be shifted and put on an
aircraft. The likelihood of a terrorist group acquiring a nuclear weapon is Very small
The black market of nuclear material t highest catch was 48 grams. You need 25 kilos
of HEU? to build most basic bomb on scale of bomb of Hiroshima
Fear of dirty bomb? The explosion is small but the explosion on contamination is high.
x After 911, 1% doctoring was driving foreign policy to a foreign use?
- Terrorists can disrupt how modern society functions. Networks of food, water electricity,
computer. There are several ups where vulnerabilities of society are very Z]PZX/uP]vZ[
an attack in Istanbul. The traffic on boshphorous is very imp for Europe and Asia. The security in
ports like Notre dame and conc is seriously improved since 911.
- The used globalization against use forces dimension about these new type of terrorist groups
- Religious element introduces new element in terrorism. They refer t o it as global jihad. No way
we can deter these groups on acting because they are carrying so values, no compromise seems
possible. Terrorists not seeming to modify social pored, but to replace it then it seems
impossible to even talk to them. So religion became the supreme justification for killing
innocent ppl. And use the tactic of suicide terrorism.
These economic theories try to underline factors between continuous rebellion and continuous something inside state. A premodule affiliation that can easily generate violence. As an instrument in the light to mobilize public support. The ethic fragmentation of a society is not the most important element explaining civil war. What is key is the dominance of one ethnic group over another. (existence of 2 or 43 main ethic groups), fragmentation refers to a bigger number of ethnic of society: j seems to be important vibe. Melochovic in serbia manipulated ethnic background to fulfill its own ethnic ambition: the brother of ethnicity is hard to asses. Some say its so imp that ethnic is nearly impossible to over come. S its so embedded that the only way out of a conflict between diff ethnicity is in fact a partition. S the prospect of the best way to end civil war that conflictionisto partition.