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Lecture

international terrorism


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL208Y1
Professor
John Haines

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Why civil war occurs?
The greed accept of rebellion, and using econ terrorist, it seems as rational decision
that is influenced by economic condition, and rebels are seen as criminals and mafia
and they seem to shake econ flow, and the main motivation is money. And from that
frame work we can have consequences.
If states abandon natural resources, there are more chances to suffer from civil wars,
like Kango, it offers opportunity for rebels to control resources.
Ethnicity considered as pre-module that can easily general violence to pitch one
part of population against another the ethnic fragmentation of a society doesnt
seem to be the most important elementwhat is the key…is the government of one
ethnic group against another. It is not fragmentation but rather polarization
(fragmentation is referring to a bigger number of ethnic dominant of a society), seem
to be importantbut the specific type of ethnic affiliation is important. It could be
through a common language, or religion or anything. Ethnicity seems to be a group,
but not sufficiently. But what is important is the manipulation of this ethnic group.
Some consider it is so important that is so important and nearly impossible to
overcome any ethnic affiliation and the only way out of ethnic conflict, is division
and the best way to do is to partition the country.
Iraq, Shia and Sunni: the only way to end the civil conflict in Iraq is to divide it into
three parts.
But other scholars, ethnicity may be important, but what the most is the security.
And bringing security, u can in fact diminish ethnic opposition. And the main idea
behind Iraq was to bring security so ethnic cooperation can happen.
The case of Countries that suffer for so long. That the very idea of the national
government is increasing empty. Like Somalia. Warlords and criminals are fighting
against each other. The truly modern conflicts are difficult to address. One way is
try to rebuild the states. And most countries the focus is more on building national
forces.
In Afghanistan. The birth of effort. Not only bring security on the ground, but to
rebuild the states of Afghanistan. And the two main areas is national army and
police force. The idea behind is the only way to end civil war is to restore the
authority of State.
In terms of causalities, civil wars are the most common cause.
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International Terrorism:
The nature of the threat: the world rediscovered the international terrorism. In 2001.
It is an old phenomenon. It was used to describe state violence by French after
French revolution.
The term terrorism, has involved describing a tactic to use to achieve political
change. In essence it is a form of warfare. From historic point of view:
The first one was called left- wing terrorism: movement have been active in EU in
60s and 70s.
On the other end. There was a right wing group: ideology was similar to fascist. One
of the bloodiest attacks in US was convicted by Right wing activist in Oklaman city.
The third is called separatist movement: a specific and local agenda to achieve. The
terrorist group HECTA in Spain. IRA in north Ireland.
A common feature of these different acts of terrorist. Their used of violence was
limited. They all follow the same tactic. Which was few people death but lots of
people watching? Their targets were highly symbolic. Like official member of gov or
royal families. These targets trigger the kind of media attention that these groups
were looking for. And they were limited because keeping causalities low so they can
maintain their domestic support. And if there was any increase in level violence, and
then public or domestic support will start to decrease. Like HECTA in Spain, by
using violence, they lost their support.
But indeed the level of violence was low. But 9/11 changed the fundamental.
Terrorist wanted a lot of people killed, and that is indeed a new type of terrorism. As
they have been defined as sacred terrorism. They seem to offer new feature. Their
large number of causalities. Madrid bomb. London bomb. 9/11 . A mess number of
causalities were their objectives.
The second aspect of these religious terrorist, is their global reach. They seem to be
active in countries like Yamane, Somalia, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Algeria.
The very word Al-Qaida means the base. In a small region they seem to be able to
organize these attacks. And it is global. And they are aiming at the west. Not what
the west is doing but what the west is.
Third aspect, their relationship with globalization: these terrorist are using the
feature of globalization that we are experiencing in everyday life. They use tech to
recruit sympathizer around the world. The peak Iraqi of countries and Afghanistan.
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