-Two democracies have never gone to war with each other.
-In the natural science, a single paradigm can be taken as a rule; it is dominant. In social
sciences, there are many and they compete.
-Theories and paradigms allow us to explore. They are simplifications of reality; like
-Theories and maps are similar because they are simplifications of reality.
-Correlation vs. Causation: •gGolf causes World Peace•h hypothesis: golfing nations never
go to war with each other. This is just a correlation because it is a coincidence. Golf has
nothing to do. Correlation doesn•ft necessarily mean causation.
-Hypotheses vs. Laws: basic project of natural science is discover laws that rule the
universe. Hypotheses are theoretical predictions (si y entonces). Laws are empirical
regularities. A hypothesis is just a best guess, and it need to be tested and falsifiable.
-Levels of analysis: individual-group-state-society-international-world system. Would
the 21st century be different if Adolf Hitler would•fve been killed in WW1?
*Individual: if hitler never existed, would fascism and nazism have existed?
*Group: Kennedy & Co. and the Cuban Missile Crisis. (Groups are not very
rational => people are better acting alone than in a group. The group dynamic is
not very useful to solve issues and emergencies)
*State: government structures influence states and impact on IR. It refers greatly
to regime types. Do authoritarian states behave differently than democracies? All
the things that are unique to the society influence the behaviour of states (culture,
climate, geography) The political culture of the US as a city on a hill
(magnanimos, superiores, nacionalistas) impacts on the way that the US acts.
They thought they•fd be seen as liberators by the vietnamese, but the vietnamese
saw them as foes.
*International: relations between states. History plays an important role
*World system: makes the assumption that there is a system that governs the
world, all of us are part of the system. Throughout most of human history,
humans existed and interacted locally, as tribes and diferentes culturas, lo que
pasaba en asia no importaba en europa ni suramerica. We live on a system of
interconnected states that interact with each other intensively. A disruption of the
system will affect the people, the society and the whole.
-Emergence of a world system. 1648, the end of the thirty years•f war, is referred as the
westphalian state system, as it draws it origins on the Peace of Westphalia. Rejection of
the authority of the pope, countries separated and went their own way by the separation
of the church and many states adopted their own which inflicted on them having their
own system (UK, Sweden). It broke down to a civil war between the reformers and the
catholic church. Peace of Westphalia: religion of the king, religion of the people. The
king was the ultimate authority within their territory (cuius regio, eius religio).
Whatever religion the king carries is the religion that you will follow
-Sovereignty: defined territory, permanent population, sovereign from other states (free
from foreign interference), diplomatically recognized by other states, possess the
monopoly on the legitimate use of force, coercion and violence within and outside their
territories. The only way in the westphalian state system (WSS) to interact is through
diplomats (YAY!). The UN has an obligation of non-intervention of nations. States in the
world system are considered equal and sovereign. Their intern issues are their intern
-The WSS spread throughout the world. Utis posidetis iuris. South america, eastern and
southern asia use the borders defined by europe. In africa it was hard to colonize
because europeans would die of nasty diseases :). East and south asia were harder to
colonize than latin america, where there were no diseases and many resources. Africa
wasn•ft wealthy enough to explore but was weak enough to conquer. This Africa process
had new players, as Germany, Belgium and Italy. The boundaries that Europe made are
the boundaries we use today.
-Can we still live with the WSS? How would things be different?
-Contested sovereignty: when sovereignty is contested, we can expect problems. From
the inside: civil wars (congo, yugoslavia, somalia). From the outside: no recognition
(kosovo, taiwan, afghanistan during the taliban). Over borders: arab-israeli.