Lecture 3.docx

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31 Mar 2012
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Lecture 3
-The WSS created the framework for statehood.
-The process of nationhood coincided with the industrial revolution
-Colonialism was the main mean by which the WSS spread through the world
-Military force in latin america is more to maintain domestic order than foreign
-In latin america they didn•ft have revolutions, they had rebellions
-They were left with peninsulares governing the countries
-Since the 20th Century, democracy has been an issue in Lat.Am
-In Africa they didn•ft have a rise of nationalism, the colonial powers just agreed to keep
some of the territory for each country
-Britain thought that they had to bring civilization to the world, but when those
civilizations were formed, they•fd be gone.
-France didn•ft believe in the white supremacy civilization as the british did. France
wanted to make them feel welcome and part of France.
-Portugal never granted independence to its colonies, but the fascist government of
Portugal collapsed in 1966 (?), so the colonies formed resistance movements and almost
overnight they fell into civil war because everything happened too fast
-The Soviet Union supported many anticolonialism movements, maybe because they
wanted to piss the western forces. In Angola, they had their independence in 1976,
South Africa and US didn•ft fight the new rebel government but they funded a guerrilla
movement to fight back the marxist govt. in Kampala. The oil companies gave taxes to
the marxist government and they used the money to fight UNITA (uniao por la
independencia total de angola). The cuban government (AH OK) helped the angolan
govt and the western oil companies. Weird.
-These new states that used to be colonies didn•ft think about the monopoly of their
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forces.
-The UN Charter is based on the idea of sovereignty. It•fs sovereignty is protected by intl
law. It is not a very democratic institution. The Security Council is formed by the
winners of WWII. These five powers have veto rights. The General Assembly does
consider each state to be equal, where Vanuatu has the same weight as PR China.
Theories in the State System
Realism
*IR is an objective field of study where events are governed by international laws.
*State = most important actor, it•fs rational and unitary.
*The international system is anarchic.
*States seek to maximize power and security as national interests.
*The distribution of power is imperative for understanding IR.
*States sometimes rely on force or the threat of force to achieve their ends.
*The potential for violence is always present.
*We should focus on what is, not on what ought to be.
*Skepticism: limited space for progress.
It came from the term Realpolitik, which says that politics among states have to stick to
the facts instead of thinking about what should be, without applying concepts of justice
and morality and taking things as is. Politics is best practiced when sticking to the facts
and the practical rather than wishful thinking about what•fs right. The father of Realism
is Thucydides (?), he wrote the history of the peloponesian wars.
Thomas Hobbes was one of the first Enlightenment political philosophers. He was
dominated by the questions of what•fs a right and just society. An ideal society (Plato) is
controlled by the wisest members of it, as the philosophers. They•fd distribute tasks in
the country based in everyone•fs abilities. He asked what kind of society is rational for an
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