International Regimes and Organizations

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11 Apr 2012
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POL208Y1: Introduction to International Relations February 7th, 2012.
International Regimes and Organizations
Essay due next week!
Go to blackboard and view under assignments, due next week at beginning of
lecture
Review from last lecture
For reforms to take place, people to change behaviour, not enough to impose
economic policy, also need to have local institutions that could provide the
environment for that economic policy to take place
Big gap b/w north and south, mainly Africa which is the big issue
There are 2 camps, modernization and dependency
Modernization didn‘t work because countries in Africa failed to adopt proper
economic policies, they mostly adopted ISI
African countries maybe didn‘t have the correct types of institutions to support
the economic policies and develop
The J-Curve of Economic Reform
Most economic and social reforms will initially cause some pain, but as you
continue you will see some benefits
Economic reforms (such as moving from ISI to ELI) are politically challenging
esp when political institutions are weak
Democratization
Problem is w/ the local institutions; is the #1 reason fro why Africa fails to
develop
Military Regimes
Local conditions ina frica are such that we cannot expect to see much
development
Regime Types
Some development of democracy in Africa over last 2 decades
Start seeing some improvement even in Africa
Those that support modernization will point out that over last decade, parts of
Africa have shown some of the fastest democratic developments in the world
Why weak institutions?
Colonial legacy
No institutional infrastructure; no modern self rule tradition
A nation state? (Sudan for example)borders were imposed by colonial powers,
these are not nation states in the same sense we see in Europe, where common
culture, history, etc gets together and finally forms nation state
e.g. just last year Sudan broke into 2 countries, there‘s no nation there and
therefore we shouldn‘t be surprised that as a nation state Sudan wasn‘t working
Sudan is an exception of not challenging colonial boundaries
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POL208Y1: Introduction to International Relations February 7th, 2012.
Once you start changing border, all borders of Africa can collapse
So there was very strong tradition of not changing this
Modern nation state has competition in Africa, all of these imposed on borders
Traditional authority structure; culture; geography
Instability weak institutions instability
The curse of natural resources
Having access to natural resources has a political cost
If you have no natural resources, the only way state can raise funds is through
taxation
If you collect taxes from people, t creates certain level of accountabilityget
services in exchange for taxes
Because state relies on population for taxes, needs to provides citizens w/ services
Even if citizen does not pay fro taxes, the regime still ahs secure lien of income
that comes form natural resources allows local regimes to ignore needs of local
popularization
They can be corrupt and do whatever they want w/ money because there is no
back and forth b/w citizens and state
Although natural resources provides income for states, also allows income for
state that allows them to be corrupt and slows down economic growth
War and Atrocities Geography and the Poverty Trap
War poverty; poverty war
Tropical regions (poor soil, disease), remote locations (large transportation costs),
land locked (transportation costs, border costs)
Given the fundamental geographic inequality, wont the Third World always be
poor?
Jeffry Sachs on the Poverty Trap
Need to provide people w/ basic things (access to drinking water, food for kids) in
order to survivejumpstart
If you are too poor to have access to enough resources to provide you with future
income, then you will never be able to get out of this trap
Salvaging the Modernization Theory
The theory is valid but the countries failed to follow its prescription and hence flopped.
The ‗blame‘ is w/ local conditions in the LDC‘s
Economic policies
Institutions
Wars
Natural environment
Underdevelopment is Structural
The South is playing in an unleveled playing field
Colonial legacy, imperialism
Late industrialization
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