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9 Mar 2011
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Course
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POL208Y1 Sept 29th 2010
Ism Paradigm
Zombie-land : Through Experiment
The different isms
What actors want? How do we deal
with treat?
What kind of data do we need to
gather?
Is cooperation possible? Is there
possibility for change?
Realism : The Realist A Team’
Theoretical foundation of the paradigm
Bismarck-Real Politick; German
19thcentury
Politics onpractical base > moral &
ideological
What should be < what is avoided
thinking about moral questions…
what should be
Conservative & Minimalists/
expansionist / militaristic
Minimalist? Goals are achievable, risks are
counted on
It doesnt matter if a cat is black of
white so long as it catches mice-
unethical or ethical doesnt matter
Deng Xiaopeng unholy alliances ex)
we dont care about conditions of other
conditions
Power politics; actors following their
self-interest
20th century E.H. Carr
Twenty Yearscrisis- 1919-1939 WW1
WW2
Coined the term realism
Realism: places its emphasis on the
acceptance of facts and on the analysis
of their (causes and consequences)”
Carr 1939
Many rulers of that era were
idealists…
Idealism vs Realism
See what they want / see what they see
Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679
First translation of Thusydides from
Peloponesian to English
Teach new scientific ideas
Geologybuilds rules and laws ;
teaches in Italy (formulate laws and
show how politics work)
Goes back to England civil war
People, Politics
Leviathan (Hobbes) 1651
The State of Nature
Society with complete anarchy; Nature
The state of nature before society
was formed ( no institution )
How are peoples behaviours in the
absence of institution?
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Awar of every man against every
man Everythings all about
surviving (nature)
Life issolitary/ poor/ nasty/ brutish
and short
The solution is the creation of “The
Sate
The Logic of Hobbes argument :
1.Human Nature: Man is a selfish
hedonistof the voluntary acts of
every man, the object is some good to
himself
Hedonist? Pursuit of or devotion to pleasure,
especially to the pleasures of the senses.
All people are equal, rational and
possessing a passionate love of
survival ( Right of Nature )
Love for survival is the only right of
human being in the state of nature;
The only right that really exists
A persons right of nature justifies
violence against everyone else
In the interests of personal survival,
people will come around to
agreeing that they should renounce
their right to use violence
Is his a good solution? No
UNSTABLE equilibrium, the moment
one party deviates from their
promise, all will deviate and war
restarts
The Logic of Hobbes argument
2. The creation of Leviathan
enforces stability
Citizens give up their
independence to buy stability
The Leviathan (The State) gets
ultimate authority and a monopoly
over the use of violence
Morality, Justice, Property are
social constructs imposed by the
state and exists only so long as the
state is strong enough to impose
them- they are tools for
maintaining stability rather than
inherent rights
Law is dependent on power.
Legal Positivism
-Formal criteria of laws origin, law
enforcement and legal effectiveness are all
sufficient for social norms to be considered
law. Legal positivism does not base law on
divine commandments, reason, or human
rights. As an historical matter, positivism
arose in opposition to classical natural law
theory, according to which there are
necessary moral constraints on the content
of law.
Justice is whatever the law says it is
Anunjust law is an oxymoron
Bull: the Domestic Analogy- the state
exists in the state ofnature
** Anarchy doesnt mean chaos !!
Anarchy refers to the absence of
government.
If one says international system is there
is anarchy, there is no legitimate use of
power no superpower exists in
international context
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The natural right of the state
(anarchy) = right to survive
Hobbes and International
Relations
The international system is in a
Hobbesian state of nature:
individual = state / unitary actor
Anarchy without a leader;
doesnt mean chaos or lack of
order
Survival: self-help, self-interest,
constant potential for violence
Therefore, very limited potential for
cooperation (only temporary) unstable
equilibrium, fear of defection
No Leviathan = No room for moral
considerations
Survival and self-interest are moral
under anarchy since those are the
only right in the state of nature
- power and interest are the moral
considerations
- moral obligation to ones people
- different type of morality for IR
The Security Dilemma
T1: constant fear and insecurity;
because any state may at any time use
force, all states must constantly be ready
either to counter force with force or to pay the
cost of weakness Waltz
T2: A seeks to increase her security by buying
weapons / building a defensive wall/ gaining
allies rational reaction in insecurity…
Ones security increase the insecurity of
ones neighbors (others) New balance of
security and insecurity
Actor B: fears As improved position
enhance sense of insecurity
T3: Actor B: forced to invest in weapons /
defensive mean/ allies
Even with such improvements, they are just as
insecure as they used to be in T1
Outcome- A and B are as insecure in T3
as they were in T1 only POORER;
ARMS RACE
The Dilemma: how can we raise our
security?
Thucydides (5th century B.C.)
Classic writer of International
Relations
All the writers here have experienced
war in their life time
Sparta-Athens . At the end of the
war, he writes books
Peace Treatise- he thought there
are certain rules and laws to
prevent wars
Human nature- innate nature of
International Relations
Peloponnesian war (431-405 B.C.)
Athens-Sparta Bi-polar system
Was popular during the Cold War
US-Russia - Melos
Athens-Melos (Melian Dialogue)
Athens vs the people of Melos
The standard of justice depends
on the equality of power to compel
and what in fact the strong do what
they have the power to do and the
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Document Summary

Politics on practical base > moral & ideological.  what should be < what is  avoided thinking about moral questions . Goals are achievable, r isks are counted on. It doesn"t matter if a cat is black of white so long as it catches mice- unethical or ethical doesn"t matter.  deng xiaopeng unholy alliances" ex) we don"t care about conditions of other conditions. Power politics; actors following their self-interest: realism: places its emphasis on the acceptance of facts and on the analysis of their (causes and consequences) . Carr 1939: many rulers of that era were idealists . See what they want / see what they see.  geology builds rules and laws ; teaches in i taly (formulate laws and show how politics work)  the state of nature before society was formed ( no institution )  how are people"s behaviours in the absence of institution? www. notesolution. com.

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