He is showing the constitutional amending formulae. a. b. The reason it took till 1982 for canadians to make up their minds to change the constitution without having to go to the british government is because they couldn"t get a consensus on how to amend the constitution. The const is constantly changing sinc e1867 to 1982 etc. Although the amending form is simple, it is very hard to get the necessary support according to the amending formulae. Referenda are now an option for const change. It is moving toward being a convention to amend the constitution. You do not vote for the state - the head of the state is the queen, she is the rep of the state. If for some reason the gov falls or is defeated then there is someone there to pick up the pieces. The executive is the pm and the cabinet.