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2nd Lecture

Political Science
Course Code
Victoria Wohl

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POL214 Politics of Development
- Industrial Revolution
Email Head TA, Melissa Levin ->
Economic Society and Market Societies are new phenomenons
Started with merchants selling goods in Europe from village to village
3 ways of organizing
Same was as their ancestors
Goods are produced in a way that has always been done, very little
change/ no room for innovation
It changes in small increments from generation to generation
Central planning, bureaucratic people will chose where the market
will go.
oMarkey Economy
Tradition and Command have been the used historically for a majority of our past.
The idea of economics (products and distribution) should be organised and not subordinate
to politics. This is a change from the pre 19 century to 19th century
Feudal system is both emblematic of goods being circulated, the feudal system needed to be
overcome and undermined to the market. Social relations based on historical obligations, its
static and rigid, the lords rule over the manner, the Lord owed protection to the serfs. The
serfs were not allowed to leave the manner.
Lords and Serfs were a social relation not of economic.
There are three things that are important

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Labour is not a commodity
oSerfs could not move or sell their labour, nor did they receive money for their
Land is not a commodity
oIn the feudal age, land was not considered outside of its social context (where
they grew their food, and a piece of territory where they were attached
Property is not a commodity
oWealth was spent on jewls and stuff that had no productive use. It was spent
on non invested capitals.
It was these three reasons that gave way to the rise of the market system
Feudal to Market- > = changing these to commodities
Before the 18th century agriculture had been much the same since the middle ages,
they used the open field system.
A share went the lord, some to the serfs. - > Low productivity
Manners also include tracks of land to acquire wood, etc. (known as commons)
Agriculture innovation would change the entire system of agricultural system
The enclosure process was slow and not produced.
Enclosure means the privatization of common land; he transformed the open fields
into private property.
The transformation of land from a birth right to an economic unit.
Serfs vs Lords, a lot of conflict over what will happen with the land. 1801 general
enclosure act
Land has to be commoditised to transition into the industrial revolution
The government is instrumental in privatizing property from commons to private
property owned by Lords
One of the reasons it hadnt been relevant to have overly productive land, no use for

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There were many inventions that made agriculture more productive
oSeed Drill
oThreshing Machine
oRotherham Plough
Crop rotation - > crops would be taking different minerals from different plants,
clover would add minerals to the soil that would avoid erosion of soil
Selective Breeding, crossing seeds to create more useful seed
Land is turned into a commodity - > because it can be, discoveries and innovations
have allowed producing surplus, and thus opening markets to agriculture. ->
Agricultural Revolution.
There were two social effects that laid
1.The enclosure forced people off the land and created a labour force
a.Serfs were forced out of the manner, feudal system breakdown
b.Over the course of the 18th century, people start to flock to the factories and
industrial workforce
c.Not only is the enclosure turning land into a commodity it is turning people
(labour into a commodity)
2.Food production
a.Food surplus, a majority of the people do not have to engage in the food that
they will eat
b.All of these increases in innovations have given way for food market
1750-1850s industrial revolution - > Production was mechanised
Surplus was finally reinvested
Transportation innovation
The First innovation of the industrial revolution was in textiles. This was the driving force
of the industrial revolution.
From raw material to the finished product
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