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Potential exam question: America and Canada are forced friends- be able to write an essay about
Canadian and American relations, economics, defence, culture, etc. (based on last lecture)
March 12th, 2012
1. Language of Diversity
Diversity is relatively new term in political science. The term was created to substitute
term “minority groups” which has been found to be racist. Diversity can be racial, sexual.
Racial diversity is about skin colour. There is also physical diversity, disabled, or there is
cultural diversity which includes, language, culture, ethnicity, origin. Terms like, Black,
Negro, African-American come and go, some terms can be misleading like the idea of
calling a black person escaping African, an African-American.
Even in Canada, the constitution now uses term “Aboriginals,” including Manitoba
Constitution used term “half-breeds” instead of Metis, Inuit etc, but it was changed
because “half-breeds” is purgatory. Same with crippled, or retarded, these terms has been
changed to disabled, mentally challenged. The descriptive provided do not classify
people with their financial status.
There are two metaphors to describe the societies of US and Canada.
USA is melting pot-equality of all members, while Canada is a mosaic because it
recognizes uniqueness of individuals. Today many would say that Canada is as much of a
melting pot is as USA, and same thing for USA to be mosaic like Canada. The idea
behind a melting pot is that in USA newcomers have to assimilate, while in Canada’s
mosaic you do not have to assimilate, because your uniqueness is recognized. Vertical
mosaic also tittle of a book- groups are not equal in Canada, in 50’s and 60’s at the top of
vertical Mosaic is a small elite of Anglo-Saxon men.
2. What is multiculturalism (5)
1. Canadian policy- supports multiculturalism; Canada is the first country in the world
which adopted policy of multiculturalism. Trudeau introduced this to House of
Commons. Its individual rights and recognition of cultures, and governments support
and even funding.
2. Empirical reality; a fact of life, whether you like the policy or not, Canada is
3. Resource- the charter in sec. 27 Canada’s multicultural heritage, you can use this as
your resource in a court case; i.e this was used in the case against closing stores on
Sunday. Multiculturalism helps in expanding trade, i.e to expand Canadian and
Indian trade, you take the Canadian-Indian businessmen, who are fluent in both
4. Value- its good that society is multicultural and not uni-cultural, because it improves
quality of life for all the people,