POL215Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Expansionism, The Communist Manifesto, Sukarno

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
UTSG
Department
Political Science
Course
POL215Y1
Oct 4, 2012
LECTURE 4
Colonialism and Nationalism (Part 2)
Forms of Nationalism in Asia
- Expansionist/Militarist (Japan)
- National Liberation (China)
Nationalism had a liberating kind of connotation to it, in the case of China dynastic system,
colonial rule
Regaining territory and autonomy
- “Nation-building” (Indonesia)
Created the new people of Indonesians
Redefine the state for Indonesians
- Nationalist, Exclusivist (Malaysia)
Japan
- Move to isolation under Tokugawa sultanate
- Adaptation to compete with Europeans
Europeans forced the Japanese to open the door for trade
Expand trading and commercial interest in the Japanese region
Act to defense increasing intrusions of Europe and the US
- 1853: Europeans able to open Japan
Open up the barriers
- Aggressive expansionism and militarism as response
Lower level of the shogunate and frustrated the stagnation of the regime
Anti-shogunal movement
1868: Meiji restoration (abolition of the shogunate system that was in place before, and the
restoration of the power of the Emperor)
Nationalism was a movement for (recreate the past)
Anti-colonialist (look to the future)
Restoration was a movement forward (underlying idea is that the Japanese are reinventing
themselves as modern people with the idea of modern citizenship)
- First Asian nationalism
- Christians were regarded subversive
- Japanese centralized the Japanese state due to the shogunate
- First to adapt the aggressive expansionism, not China
- Meiji restoration: first step in modernizing and transforming the Japanese state. Reaction to the
intrusion by American, Russian powers in the region forcing Japan to open up trade
- The system of shogunate has reached its limit in rejecting the European powers
- It was the bureaucracy and military that had modern technology that built up the region power
(new form of state and nation)
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Oct 4, 2012
- Happened in 1868 onwards
- Heyday of colonialism (the Meiji restoration)
- New regime that transformed Japan into a new political system, also wants to assert power in
the industrial system
- Japan had a lot of bureaucratic educational resources to use to transform of industrial purposes
(same thing happened in Siam, except the military transformation wasn’t that extensive)
Why expansionist? (Japan)
- Conscious of equality with Western powers
Nationalism = everyone is equal, and they are not above others
Reassertion in the ability to say there is no such ranking
By 1905, the Japanese engaged in a war with Russia, and the former won
The victory of the war made a statement that the Asian people were just as capable in
competing in the world as the Europeans
- Competition in late 19th century meant empire
Already in place, we see the ideology of this regime (idea of empire and expansion)
There are some different ideas of how to promote a state expansion and its capacity and the
industrial transformation at this period of time (we have the strong economic development,
Prussians very different from the British. Rise of the ideology of militarism. Fascism grew in
Europe, an idea of alternative, which was the idea that a strong military state could
effectively transform society towards something different. In this case, it means the
transformation of industrialization)
- Meiji restoration did not establish a liberal democratic base
- Economic instability and poverty fueled expansionism
Japanese was very poor
Expansionism would create the effect of extract resources (create more prosperity for
Japanese)
Korea was the first in 1910 (expansionism)
Manchuria in China
1931: war between Japan and China
Used the Chinese Emperor as the puppet
China
- Chinese society stable for 2000 years (physical and political strategies)
- Qing dynasty suffered from internal decay and strong state/bureaucracy
- The huge population came the needs to produce food (eroding the regime, because it proved
incapable of stimulating this kind of needs)
- Rising problems of
Rebellion
Opium and European pressure
- 1640: Manchuria replaced the emperor in China (Qing dynasty)
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Document Summary

Nationalism had a liberating kind of connotation to it, in the case of china dynastic system, colonial rule. Europeans forced the japanese to open the door for trade. Expand trading and commercial interest in the japanese region. Act to defense increasing intrusions of europe and the us. Lower level of the shogunate and frustrated the stagnation of the regime. 1868: meiji restoration (abolition of the shogunate system that was in place before, and the restoration of the power of the emperor) Nationalism was a movement for (recreate the past) Restoration was a movement forward (underlying idea is that the japanese are reinventing themselves as modern people with the idea of modern citizenship) Meiji restoration: first step in modernizing and transforming the japanese state. Japanese centralized the japanese state due to the shogunate. First to adapt the aggressive expansionism, not china intrusion by american, russian powers in the region forcing japan to open up trade.

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