Contrast corruption in south korea and china. Sk"s high growth period of 1960"s and 1970"s. Park chung hee was educated in manchuria and had admired japan. South korean bank: government bureaucrat second prize in comparison to private entrepreneur, military associates in charge of key industries, more politically repressive in comparison to japan. Attempt at forming unions were declared as communist. Keiretsu are not family owned but owned by private individuals who are centered by banks. Samsung has chemical industries, financial industries, etc : bank loans for chaebols came from government owned banks. (direct ability to determine the fate of big businesses, the kieretsu had loans from major banks (which are not owned by government) This does not mean, however, that japanese government cannot intervene. Means that sk and japanese government intervened in the economy in different ways. Highly concentrated buisnesses facilitated government collaboration: under rhee, there is an import substitution policy.